NHA Clinical Medical Assistant Study Guide (Virginia College)
Contraction of the heart (-)
Relaxation of the heart (+)
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Affects both the atria and the ventricles by increasing heart rate. conduction, and irritabilty.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Is subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Affects the atria only by decreasing heart rate, conduction and irritability.
Atrioventricular Valves (AV)
Located between the atria and ventricles.
Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Located between the left atrium and the left ventricle (also called the bicuspid valve).
Caused by diseases of the valves or other structural abnormalities.
The first heart sound that occurs with the closure of the AV valves and signals the beginning of systole.
The second heart sound which occurs when the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) close.
Located between the left ventricle and the aorta
Located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
Receives deoxygenated blood
Superior Vena Cava
Carries the blood from the upper body
Inferior Vena Cava
Carries the blood from the lower body
Arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs (left and right)
Receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs via the right and left pulmonary veins.
Only veins that carry oxygenated blood.
The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
Upper Chambers of the Heart
Left and right atria (atrium is singular)
Lower Chambers of the Heart
Left and right ventricle.
The innermost layer of the heart.
The middle layer of the heart.
The outermost layer of the heart.
twice a day
three times a day
four times a day
every other day
after meals or not on an empty stomach
by mouth or orally
by way of the rectum
intramuscular (in the muscle)
short for subcutaneous (meaning under the skin)
The second tier of precautions and are to be used when a patient is known or suspected of being infected with a contagious disease.
Are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms by direct or indirect contact.
are measure that reduce the risk for transmitting airborne infectious agents.
A method of infection control that assumed that all human blood and body fluids were potentially infectious.
An infection control method designed to prevent direct contact with blood and other body fluids and tissues by using barrier protection and work control practices.
The most importanat means of preventing the spread of infection.
Refers to placing a physical barrier between the patients body fluids (such as blood and saliva) and the healthcare personnel (HCP) to prevent disease transmision.
A procedure used in medical asepsis using various chemicals that can be used to destroy many pathogenic microorganisms.
All microbial life, pathogens and nonpathogens, are destroyed before an invasive procedureis performed.
Often used for wheelchairs and hospital beds. Useful in hospitals, but costly for offices.
Dry Heat Sterilization
Requires higher temperature than steam sterilization, but longer exposure times. Used for instruments that easily corrode.
Uses the same chemical used for chemical disinfection, but exposure time is longer.
Uses steam under pressure to obtain high temperature of 250 - 245F with exposure times of 20 - 40 minutes depending on the item being timed as it hits the correct temperature listed above-maximum shelf life is 30 days for a sterile pack.
Invovles enviromental hygiene measures such as equipment cleaning and disinfection procedures.
Agent...Mode of Transmission...Susceptible Host
Agent (Portal of Exit)
The method by which an infectious agent leaves its reservoir.
Mode of Transmission (Portal of Entry)
Specific ways in which microorganisms travel from the reservoir to the suseptible host.
The infectious agent enters a person who is not resistant or immune.
Types of Mode of Transmission
Contact of direct and indirect, Droplet, Airborne, Common, Vectorborne
Controlling the bleeding is most effectively accomplished by elevating the affected part above the heart level and applying direct pressure to the wound.
Lying on the side with the right knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest.
Dorsal Lithotomy position
Like dorsal recumbant (patient flat on back) but feet are in stirrups, placed farther apart and abducted (pelvic exams).
Lying on the abdomen with the head turned to one side.
Dorsal Recumbent positoin
Patient in on his/her back with knees flexed and soles of the feet on the bed.
A sitting or semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 90 degrees.
Horizontal Recumbent position
The patient is positioned lying flat on the back with the legs close together.
The examiner uses the sense of touch to determine the characteristics of an organ system.
This involves tapping or striking the body, usually with the fingers or a small hammer to determine the position, size and density of the underlying organ or tissue.
This invovles listening to sounds produced by internal organs.
Common errors in blood pressure measurement
Improper cuff size / The arm not at heart level / Cuff not completely deflated before use / Deflationof the cuff is faster than 2 - 3 mmHg per second
This is a respiration rate of greater than 40/min.
Decrease in numbers of respirations.
Refers to the pattern of breathing.
Cheyne Stokes (Death Rate)
A regular pattern of irregular breathing rate.
Difficulty or inability to breath unless in an upright position.
Temperature taken at the armpit.Tympanic te
Temperature near tympanic membrane, ear.
The temperature reading obtained by placing the thermometer in the patient's mouth under the tongue.
A temperature taken in the rectum.
Ranges from 60 and 100 beats per minute.
The site most commonly used, found in the wrist on the same side as the thumb.
A more accurate measurement of the heart rate and it is taken over the apex of the heart by auscultating using the stethoscope.
The normal range for adults is 12 to 20 per minute.
4 Vital Signs of Body
Temperature / Pulse / Respiration / Blood Pressure
Fluctuating fever that returns to or below baseline then arises again.
Fluctuating fever that remains constant above the baseline; it does not return to baseline temperature.
A fever that remains constant above the baseline; it does not fluctuate.
The ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own.
The ability of the heart muscle cells to respond to an impulse or stimulus.
The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
The ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse.
the pace-maker of the heart; where the impulse conduction of the heart usually starts; located in the top of the right atrium.
Located at the posterior septal wall of the right atrium just above the tricuspid valve.
Bundle of His
Located at the superior portion of the interventricular septum, it is the pathway that leads out of the SA node.
The left arm is positive and the right arm is negative. (LA, RA)
The left leg is positive and the right arm is negative. (LL, RA)
The left leg is positive and the left arm is negative. (LL, LA)
Augmented Unipolar Lead
Are designated as aVR, aVL, aVF. These unipolar leads that require one elctrode from one limb to make a lead.
The right arm is positive and the other limbs are negative.
The left arm is positive and the other limbs are negative.
The left leg (or foot) is positive and the other limbs are negative.