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34 terms

Lsb 382 GITMD

It's all about what makes poo watery!!
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Name six causitive agent groups
Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Helminths, Algae
What types of gropus are considered high risk
elderly, neonates and travellers to high risk zones
What is the principal symptom associated with GITMD
diarrhoea
Diarrhoea can be
microbial or non microbial in origin
Diarrhoea symptoms can be classed as
non inflammatory or inflammatory
Inflammatory diarrhoea characterised by
Leucocytes in stools
Blood in stools
mucus in stools
severe abdo pain in lower left quadrant (effects colon)
+/- fever
Non inflammatory diarrheoa characterised by
no leucocytes in stools
rarely blood in stools
raely mucus in stools
greatly increased watery stools
no one to slight abdo pain (effects small intestine)
+/- fever
What are appropriate samples for specimen collection
Faeces and vomitus
Types of lab diagnostics
Macroscopic: this a visual inspection to see consistancy
Microscopic: closer inspection using microscope to detect the presence of blood, mucus or pus that weren't visible to the naked eye. Can tell you whether it was a inflammatory infection or not.
Stool culture: This is where bacteria are grown for identification to distinguish the causitive agent
ASA can be used if anti biotics are to be used.
Diarrheoa symptoms are usually
self resolving in immunocompetant individuals and antibiotics are normally contraindicated
Modes of transmisssion
Fingers, Food, Flies, Faeces, Fomites and Water
anitbiotics may be prescribed if
the condition is chronic, at risk group is involved, the agent is Shigella. note antibiotics generally only work on bacterial conditions and may actually make other conditions worse as they kill of NRF.
Things that dictate risk status
Microbial type
immuno status of the host
environment
Diarrhoeal infections normally target and alter the function of
The LGIT : normal function water, electrolyte absorption and excretion of faeces. Hence why if this function is altered water and electrolyes are expelled creating watery faeces. This process leads to dehydration which can be life threatening in chronic cases.
Preventative measures for GITMD
Yes by employing standard enteric precautions
GITMD effects
normal functioning of the of GIT
Where are the principal sites of infection for GITMD
small intestine and colon
What is the principal tissue targeted by GITMD
Mucous membranes of the LGIT
Vomiting is frequently indicated with what type of agent
Food toxins: bacteria is coated with toxin and is preformed in the food so doesn't need to replicate in GIT to cause symptoms. Indicated by rapid onset and often multiple cases from people consumiing the same food. (enterotoxins commonly indicated Staph.aureus & Bacillus cereus)
Bacterial GITMD common to Australia
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherchia coli, Shigella, Listeria, Yersina, Bacillus, Clostridum, Vibro species
Viral GITMD common to Australia
Rotavirus, Noravirus
Fungal GITMD common to Australia
Candida albicans
Protozoans GITMD
Giardia, Cryptosporidium
Helminths (worms) GITMD
enterobus, Taenia, Echinococcus, Ascaris, Strongyloides
GITMD disease are commonly transfered via
the faecal oral route
Shigella is a
human specific pathogen requires mandatory treatment with antibiotics and reporting to limit spread
Dysentery
characterised by blood, mucus and pus in stool.
Inflammatory diarrheoa may be
severe, chronic and require therapy
Acute diarrhoea is characterused by
liquefied stools
Why would neonates be particularly vulnerable
as they easily succumb to dehydration and have immature immune systems
What is the best way to control GITMD
By targeting the microbial agent and tranmission routes
Can bacteria penetrate the mucosal epithelium and attack other organs
yes
Most common sources
water and food
Treatment generally required
rehydration