Inflammatory diarrhoea characterised by
Leucocytes in stools
Blood in stools
mucus in stools
severe abdo pain in lower left quadrant (effects colon)
Non inflammatory diarrheoa characterised by
no leucocytes in stools
rarely blood in stools
raely mucus in stools
greatly increased watery stools
no one to slight abdo pain (effects small intestine)
Types of lab diagnostics
Macroscopic: this a visual inspection to see consistancy
Microscopic: closer inspection using microscope to detect the presence of blood, mucus or pus that weren't visible to the naked eye. Can tell you whether it was a inflammatory infection or not.
Stool culture: This is where bacteria are grown for identification to distinguish the causitive agent
ASA can be used if anti biotics are to be used.
Diarrheoa symptoms are usually
self resolving in immunocompetant individuals and antibiotics are normally contraindicated
anitbiotics may be prescribed if
the condition is chronic, at risk group is involved, the agent is Shigella. note antibiotics generally only work on bacterial conditions and may actually make other conditions worse as they kill of NRF.
Diarrhoeal infections normally target and alter the function of
The LGIT : normal function water, electrolyte absorption and excretion of faeces. Hence why if this function is altered water and electrolyes are expelled creating watery faeces. This process leads to dehydration which can be life threatening in chronic cases.
Vomiting is frequently indicated with what type of agent
Food toxins: bacteria is coated with toxin and is preformed in the food so doesn't need to replicate in GIT to cause symptoms. Indicated by rapid onset and often multiple cases from people consumiing the same food. (enterotoxins commonly indicated Staph.aureus & Bacillus cereus)
Bacterial GITMD common to Australia
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherchia coli, Shigella, Listeria, Yersina, Bacillus, Clostridum, Vibro species
Shigella is a
human specific pathogen requires mandatory treatment with antibiotics and reporting to limit spread
Why would neonates be particularly vulnerable
as they easily succumb to dehydration and have immature immune systems