35 terms

Chapter 9: Sound

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PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

What is Sound?
Sound- Talking, laughing, singing, music, and the aural effects of objects and settings
-Sound operates on both a physical and a psychological level
-Sound and silence create the sound track
-Sound crew: Generates and controls the sound physically, manipulating its properties to produce the effects the director desires
Sound Production
-Design
-Recording
-Editing
-Mixing
Sound Design
- Sound should be integral to all three phases of film production (preproduction, production, postproduction)
-A film's sound is potentially as expressive as its images
- Image and sound can create different worlds
- Image and sound are co-expressible
- Film sound has become more innovative and complex, as has the role of sound designers
Sound Recording
-Microphone; converts sound waves into electrical signals that are recorded and stored
-Digital (sound track) format: offers greater flexibility
- Dialogue is the only type of film sound typically recorded during production
- Sound crew: Production sound mixer, sound recordist, sound mixer, a microphone boom operator, and gaffers
-Double-system recording; Sound is recorded on a medium separate from the picture
Sound Editing
-Editor: Responsible for the overall process of editing and for the sound crew; also works with the musical composer(s)
- Postproduction: usually when sound effects and music are created and or added
- Automatic Dialogue Replacement (ADR)- A sophisticated computer process for synching dialogue and rerecorded in postproduction to the moving lips of actors on screen
Sound Mixing
- Combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture
- Sound track: a single element of an individual track that can be combined in a multitrack sound design
- The right balance of dialogue, music, and sound effects may result in an "audio mise-en-scene"
Describe Film Sound
-Perceptual characteristics of sound:
- pitch
-loudness
-quality
-fidelity
-Source: where it comes from
-Type: vocal or musical
Pitch, Loudness, Quality
- Pitch (level) high or low; defined by frequency
- Frequency (speed): number of sound waves per second
- Loudness (volume or intensity): loud/soft; depends on amplitude
- Amplitude: the degree of motion of the air within the sound wave
-Quality (timbre, texture, color)-simple/complex; harmonic content (wavelengths)
Fidelity
A sound's faithfulness or unfaithfulness to its source
Source of Film Sound
Source- the location from which a sound originates
-Diegetic vs nondiegetic
-Onscreen vs offscreen
-Internal vs external
Diegetic Sound
-Originates from a source within a film's world
-Gives an awareness of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the shot
-Internal or external/ Onscreen or offscreen/ Recorded during production or constructed during postproduction
Nondiegetic Sound
-Comes from a source outside a film's world
-Usually has no relevant spatial or temporal dimensions
-Offscreen and recorded during postproduction
-Assumed to be inaudible to the characters onscreen
Onscreen vs Offscreen
Onscreen (simultaneous): emanates from a source that we can see
-Offscreen (non simultaneous) derives from a source we do not see
- Asynchronous sound: derives from a source we do not see but is a sound closely related to the action but not precisely synchronized with it, may anticipate or follow that action
Offscreen Sound
- May be either diegetic or nondiegetic
-Diegetic offscreen sound- effects, music, or vocals that emanate from the world of the story
-Nondiegetic offscreen sound-musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story
Internal vs External
-Internal sound occurs whenever we hear what we assume are the thoughts of a character within a scene
- Shakespeare's soliloquies are often an "interior monologue" so we can hear the characters thoughts
-External sound comes from a place within the diegesis, (the world of the story) and we assume that it is heard by the characters in that world
Types of Film Sound
- Vocal sounds (dialogue and narration)
- Environmental sounds (ambient sound, sound effects, and Foley sounds)
-Music
-Silence
Vocal sounds: Dialogue and Narration
-Dialogue (recorded during production and rerecorded during postproduction) is the speech of the characters
- It is one of the principal means of telling a story
-Dialogue is a function of plot
-Narration: onscreen or offscreen voices; omniscient (3rd person) or from a character
Environmental Sounds
- Ambient sound: emanates from the ambience of the setting or environment being filmed
- Sound effects: include all sounds artificially created for the soundtrack that have a function in telling the story
-Foley sounds: unique sounds created from a variety of props and equipment to simulate everyday sounds
Music
-Large symphonic scores set moods or manipulate emotions
-Irony often results from the juxtaposition of music and image
-Musical themes are frequently associated with individual characters
Silence
-Functions as a sound when the filmmaker deliberately suppresses the vocal, environmental, or musical sounds that we expect in a movie
- With careful interplay between silence and sound, a filmmaker can produce a rhythms for the film that calls attention to the characters perceptions
Functions of Film Sound
- Helps filmmakers tell the movie's story by reproducing and intensifying the world that has been partially created by the films visual elements
- Audience awareness and expectations
-Expression of point of view
-Rhythm and emphasis
- Characterization
- Continuity
Audience Awareness
-Sound guides our attention and influences our interpretation
-Sound directors out attention to both the spatial and temporal dimensions of a sense
-Sound creates emphasis by how it is selected, arranged, and enhances
Audience Expectations
- Sound creates expectations
- Sound requires precise timing and coordination with the image
- When a particular sound signals an action and that sound is used repeatedly, it plays on our expectations
Expression of Point of View
-Juxtaposing visual and aural images
- Visionary movies rely on sounds of all kinds to create worlds
-Music, sounds, and silence elevate film's meaning
Rhythm
-Rhythm is the key to the universe
- Sound can add rhythm by accompanying movement on the screen or juxtaposed against movement
-Montage of sounds: a mix of multiple sources of diverse quality, level, and placement that can be orchestrated to create rhythm
Characterization
-Dialogue, sound effects, and music all contribute
-Music is frequently associated with character's thoughts
-Musical themes help us to understand the setting
-Musical themes often identify characters
Continuity
-Sound can indicate that the scene has not changed in either time or space
-Overlapping sound: can be used to link and provide unity between disparate scenes
-Sound bridges: helps the story move and make sense by carrying the sound from shot a over to shot b before the scene begins
Emphasis
-Created when sound accentuates and strengthens the visual images
-Can be subtle or forceful
- May be symbolic
- In animated films the violence is loud but usually harmless
Sound is the highest priority in the postproduction process
Which of the following is NOT a fundamental assumption of sound design?
In postproduction
Most film sound is constructed
Automatic dialogue replacement
Dubbing has become easier with the help of
Quality
A sound is distinguished from others of the same pitch and loudness by its
Originates from a source within the films world
Diegetic sound
Character's thoughts
Musical themes are frequently associated with which of the following?
Accentuate the visual image
Emphasis serves to
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