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Terms in this set (45)

hellenistic art and life in cosmopolitan cities reflected a deep blending of classical Greek culture with that of ancient Middle East and Egypt
Jews worked to preserve their identity
spreading Hellenism-conflict
Judea under Alexander and Ptolemies successor kingdoms offered opportunities for Jews from Palestine to trade and settle throughout Hellenistic world
struggled to sustain their sense of identity (Jews)
most pious- lived in Jewish quarters- observe old laws- separate
some Jews comprised with Hellenism
learning Greek
some traditional beliefs
sometime in third century, Hebrew scriptures translated into Greek- Septuagint
Palestine had many Greek settlements even in Jerusalem
Jesus Ben Sirach
uncertainties within Jewish community came to a head when Seleucid kings wrested Palestine from ptolemies
Hellenization quickened
Antiochus IV intended to change Jewish observance in order to "combine the people's"
even high priest of Jerusalem supported the king , wanted to bring fellow men to the Greek ways of life
Antiochus established Greek schools in Jerusalem and entered Jewish contestants in Greek style games
ordered an altar to Zeus to be erected in the Temple of Jerusalem
policies proved too much for pious Jews, Judas Maccabeus led an armed revolt against the Seleucids
account of Maccabean revolt is preserved in a text called The First Book of the Maccabees by Jew
in the end, Maccabeans prevailed
in the end, priests rededicated the Temple, Jews celebrated the restoration of their identity
Maccabean revolutionaries established a new theocratic state of Judea, Seleucids to busy
jewish state continued conquests of neighboring states
new rulers proved intolerant of their gentile subjects, forcing many to convert, insisting on circumcision, worsened instability (things like these)
during the reign of Augustus, at the beginning of the empire, a child named Jesus was born in about 4 B.C.E, possibly in Bethlehem
influenced the empire by the 4th century
info drawn from New Testament from Gospels
offer little info about his first thirty years
was son of a woman named Mary and a carpenter named Joseph and that he excelled in his religious studies, he confounded the priests of the temple with his knowledge of matters of faith
Jesus drew from the rich religious environment in the Jewish lands
appealed to the poor, many of his sayings resembled those of Hillel the Elder
his teachings also had some qualities in common with those of Essenes
spoke heavenly kingdom and attracted a large following of those who longed for a better life
Jesus began his ministry after being baptized by John the baptist
for many, Jesus was the awaited Messiah who would save and transform the world
many called hims Christ- the Lord's Anointed, the Messiah
the totality of his message was strikingly new and changed the course of Western Civilization
for about three years, he preached in Judea and Galilee- drawing huge crowds to listen to his message of peace, love, and care for the poor and suffering
was accompanied by a small group of devoted followers- the apostles- who carried on his message after his death
many believed he performed miracles and cures
his growing popularity alarmed both Jewish leaders and Roman authorities
about 29 B.C.E, Roman governor, Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus to crucifixion
Romans nailed a sign on Jesus's cross identifying his as the "king of the Jews"
Jesus's brief had come to an end, three days later, Jesus followers believed they saw him risen from the dead and taken into heaven
believed this proof of Jesus's divinity promised a resurrection for his followers, apostles wanted to spread this good news to other Jews
a small group of Jesus's followers led by the apostles Peter and James formed a Jewish sect that modern historians call the Jesus movement to identify the period when followers of Jesus continued to identify themselves as Jews
apostles appealed to other Jews by preaching and praying at the temple and at small gatherings
earliest history of the Jesus movement is recorded in Acts of the New Testament in bible
Jews believed the prophecy and miracles marked the presence of the divine message
apostles began traveling to bring his message to others
spoke in prophetic tongues and appeared to work miracles- preaching in Jewish communities around the Mediterranean world
the early Jewish movement could have taken various different directions
would Jesus's followers withdraw from society?
the apostle James moved to Jerusalem and centered his leadership of the church there
accepting gentiles- non Jews into the new religion
James took a position of conservative Judaism, insisting Christianity required its adherents to follow the circumcision and strict dietary laws that had marked the Jewish people
the apostle Peter seems to have been more willing to preach the gentiles- "God fearing" Greeks who were interested in the ethical monotheism of the Jews
Peter believed they would not have to be circumcised or keep all the Jewish festivals but would have to follow dietary restrictions
but the man who would be remembered as the Apostle to the gentiles had not known Jesus before his crucifixion
Saul of Tarsus whom we remember by the name of Paul was a hellenized Jew and Roman citizen who had at first harassed Christians
after he experienced a vision of the risen Jesus, he converted and took up the mission of bringing the Christian message beyond the particularity of the Jewish communities to the wider world of Roman empire + beyond
he moved beyond Peter by eliminating all dietary restrictions on Christians and traveled widely through the eastern portion of the empire establishing new Christian communities
Christian message slowly spread throughout the Roman world
Paul's influence on the young church was immense, his letters became part of Christian scriptures
religious tensions btwn Jews and Roman authorities in Palestine culminated shortly after the deaths of Peter and Paul
Rome decided to take action on those in Judea
in the course of the suppression the Essene community at Qumran was destroyed (burned dead sea scrolls)
armies proceeded against Jerusalem
in 70 C.E., the son of Emperor Vespasian Titus led Roman legions into Jerusalem, burned the city and destroyed the second temple- all that seems to have remained of Herod's great temple was the Western Wall- important symbol of Jewish faith and location for praying (called wailing wall for many years bc of mourning) in Hebrew called wall
Titus returned to Rome in a triumphal procession and built a great arch celebrating his accomplishment- marble relief from arch that Titus's troops return victorious from Jerusalem clutching spoils from the temple
Temple was never rebuilt- many Jews were scattered from Judea all over the Mediterranean after this devastation- with them traveled numerous followers of the Jesus movement
the destruction of the temple resolved the tensions within Judaism
the Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots all destroyed and Pharisees made peace with the Romans and recentered Judaism on synagogue worship
an emphasis on prayer and the law replaced sacrifices at the Temple
after 70 C.E. the Hebrew canon scriptures came to be closed and the Hebrew bible (old testament) was completed
followers of teacher Hillel reached compromise with the authority of Rome that let Jews maintain an identity with the in the empire, future rabbis would study scripture and interpret the ways Jews should act while living among gentiles
the conquest of Jerusalem also settled any question about whether Christianity was to be centered in Jerusalem
early Christianity was to be a religion that was not bound to one city and began to claim universality
the Jesus movement within Judaism was transformed and was now called the early christian church