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51 terms

cell death

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apoptosis and necrosis
two major pathways of cell death
apoptosis
chromatin margination
apoptosis
nuclear margination
apoptosis
non-random DNA cleavage
apoptosis
cell shrinkage
apoptosis
maintenance of plasma and organelle membrane
apoptosis
apoptotic bodies
apoptosis
blebbing with budding
apoptosis
activation of a family of proteases called caspases
apoptosis
atp levels are maintained 30-50%
apoptosis
cytochome c release
apoptosis
activation of p53
apoptosis
no inflammation
necrosis
pynkotic nuclei
necrosis
chromatin clumping
necrosis
random/no DNA cleavage
necrosis
cell swelling
necrosis
loss of plasma and organelle membrane integrity
necrosis
swelling of mitochondria and ER
necrosis
blebbing without budding
necrosis
caspases are not involved
necrosis
other proteases (calpains)
necrosis
high levels of Ca2+ inside the cell
necrosis
inflammation
apoptosis
can affect single cells
apoptosis
nucleus dissolves
apoptosis
phagocytosis
apoptosis
little loss of intracellular contents
necrosis
affects multiple cells
necrosis
loss of no intracellular contents
necrosis
no phagocytosis
mitochondrial function
____ is one of the major determinates of how a cell will die (membrane integrity, ATP levels, pro-apoptotic proteins)
cytochrome c
mitochondrial protein released during cell singling events (if atp is present, will form with another protein to recruit caspase-9 and activate it. caspase-9 will activate other caspases)
necrosis
if mitochondrial function is lost than ATP levels decline (<30%). if atp decreases enough Na+/K+ ATPase will not work, Na+ enters the cell along with water and Ca2+ = cell swelling
caspases
family of cystein proteases
interleukin 1-beta converting enzymes (ICE)
first family member of caspases to be identified
initiator, executioner (downstream), cytokine processors
caspases 15 different members divided into 3 groups:
2,8,9,10,12
initiator caspases involves:
executioner caspases, intrinsic, extrinsic
initiator caspases activates ______ ______; two processes:
intrinsic
mitochondrial, er, or nuclear mediated
extrinsic
receptor mediated
caspases
____are responsible for many of the features of apoptosis
p53, cell growth, cell death, cell cycle
tumor supressor protein that mediates several cellular processes:
p53
mutated in over 50% of human cancers, loss of ____ is believed to be a key event in carcinogenesis in prostrate and breast tumors
mutated, apoptosis
_____p53 makes cell more resistant to ______
caspases
p53 induces ______ in response to nuclear damage
necrosis
induced by multiple mechanisms
necrosis
loss of er and mitochondrial function
necrosis, ATP, Ca2+
almost always involves loss of ____ and increases in intracellular ____
necrosis, ATP,Ca2+
apoptosis can turn into _____, dependent on ___ and ___
concentration of drug, cellular status (cell cycle, nutritional, age)
one drug can induce both (not at the same time) depends on: