67 terms

Anthropology Unit 2

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Spanish Invasion of Peru (date)
1532
Machu Picchu Occupation (date)
1438-1560
Inca Imperial Florescence (date)
1527
Chaco Florescence (date)
1030-1090
Decline/Abandonment of Chaco Canyon (date)
1120
Acllakuna
A state-run female institution where young girls (age seven or so) were trained and educated to become priestesses, were sacrificial victims, or, in most cases, we kept as secondary wives of Inca emperors or to be distributed as a sign of favor to successful generals, administrators or allies; basis for Bingham's Virgins of the Sun theory
Alpaca
A member of the camelid family, alpacas were found in abundance in the Machu Picchu burial caves; they served as a source of food, their wool was used to create garments, and they played a role in funeral and other religious ceremonies (sacrificial purpose of older alpacas; offered as final meal to dead retainers and their mourners)
Anasazi
The ancestors of the Pueblo Indians, whose scattered villages dot the valleys and mesas of northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona today (main sites were Mesa Verde in Colorado, Kayenta in Arizona, and Chaco Canyon in New Mexico); patient and expert farmers in semi-arid conditions
Ancestral Puebloan
An ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northern Arizona, northwest New Mexico, and southern Colorado; archaeologists referred to one of these cultural groups as the Anasazi, although the term is not preferred by contemporary Pueblo peoples
Atlantean Hypothesis
A false tale of a great civilization/continent that was destroyed by the Greek Gods (but modern adaptations attribute its demise to Athenian conquering or natural disaster); considered first great civilization ("mother culture" to all other great societies); diffusion of ideas (consider other societies too primitive to develop advanced culture of their own); aware of its falsehood due to plate tectonics, mismatched chronology (Plato's story)
Aztec Ruin
Considered to be outlier Chaco center, located between Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde; actually constructed by Ancestral Puebloans, not the Aztecs; dated back to the 11th and 13th centuries
Cacao
Cacao in American Southwest and Mesoamerica; trade cacao (residue found in Pueblo Bonito mugs) and turquoise; distributed among elites and non-elites (found in both great houses and pueblos); equal access to goods, more egalitarian; shows people regularly inhabit great houses (ritual site? pilgrimage?)
Cahokia
Found in Mississippi Valley, Cahokia was the site of many debates regarding the "moundbuilder myths"; argue that mounds built are far beyond the age/complexity of Native American inhabitants; question the presence of the "Old World" (Europeans, Israelites, Vikings) and therefore Native Americans are their brutal murderers
Chaco Canyon
Most interesting but least understood culture; most exceptional concentration of pueblos in American Southwest; utilized sandstone blocks and timber; 15 major complexes, "sun dagger" (emphasis on solar/lunar cycles); advanced irrigation system (dams, canals, ditches); interesting layout of roads (trade for turquoise, jett, copper, macaw, cacao beverages; ritualistic; pilgrimages); move from permanence to sedentism (fire pits suggest seasonal residency); cannibalism debates
Chaco Meridian
Lekson's proposal that Chaco, Aztec Ruins, and Casas Grandes are intentionally linked along a meridian alignment that symbolizes the sequence and continuity of their dominance in Pueblo prehistory; since Chaco was the first regional center, later centers demonstrated their historical linkage to the first and greatest center by meridian symbolism (an overarching political geography)
Chaco Outliner
Ruins outside of Chaco Canyon that are in some way connected; roadways lead to and are found at outlier locations, further connecting Chaco society; solidified belief that Chaco Canyon is the center of political, economic, and cultural ideals
Chaco Phenomenon
The Chacoan pueblos, kivas, structures, sites, communities, roads, ceramics are the material manifestation of the Chacoan culture's complex social-regious-economic system, all in a sandy-soiled canyon of meager resources and marginal moisture
Chaco Road System
Roads were in part used for trade, but wide, parallel, raised roads as well as straight north/south roads suggest a potential ritual purpose (pilgrimages) or transportation of timber
Chaco Wash
A periodic stream (also called an arroyo) that cuts through Chaco Canyon; flows northwest to become the intermittent Chaco River
Chetro Ketl
Another extensive structure in ruins; means "Rain Pueblo"; Six circular kivas deeper than any seen before (otherwise same masonry); one room was perfectly preserved; in the cliffs behind the ruins there are ancient stairways that lead to prehistoric roadways connecting to Pueblo Bonito
Coprolite
Fossilized feces; scientists analyzed Chacoan coprolite and found traces of human ingestion (supports cannibalism theory)
Cranial Modification/Deformation
One of the most ways of expressing ethnic identity in the prehispanic Andes; binding of infants in cradle boards or with other devices while the skull was still readily flexible; various forms of cranial modification at Machu Picchu suggest mixed ethnic population in the burials
Cuzco
Inca capital
Diffusion
The spread of social institutions, myths, and skills from one society to another; many times this idea is racialized (Moundbuilders, Atlantis) in that societies deemed primitive are considered unlikely creators of advanced civilizations
Ethnoarcheology
The study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archeological record; it allows archeologists to reconstruct ancient ways of life from the traditions of modern societies (use of Chacoan descendants to understand use of roads and sky-watching)
Fajada Butte
A circular mound with tableau top, rising abruptly midway in the canon to a height of 300-400 feet; isolated sandstone feature; Fajada Butte three-slab-and-spiral petrograph solar and lunar calendar (spiral petroglyph carved onto cliff wall used to mark sun location); now called The Sun Dagger
Forensic Archeology
The application of archeological and bioarcheological knowledge for legal purposes
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas
Great House
Huge sites that appeared in Chaco Canyon, centrally located amid a cluster of smaller sites; question its use in Chaco society (ritual location? pilgrimage meeting ground?); Mesoamerican features
Great Kiva
Signature aspect of Chaco Canyon buildings; the underground ceremonial chambers that serve as centers of all ritual observances; large, elaborate kivas were characteristic of Anasazi cultures
Hiram Bingham
Organized exhibition of Machu Picchu; used Spanish colonial narratives to draw a number of conclusions that later archeological research and investigation contradicts (dual identifications of Machu Picchu as either the last Inca capital or the mythic Inca birthplace; Virgins of Sun as possible occupiers of Machu Picchu)
Hearth
A brick or stone lined fireplace or oven often used for cooking and/or heating; Windes studied location and number of hearths per household in order to draw some conclusions regarding population size, seasonality, and hearth usage (domestic or ritual) in Chaco
Huayna Capac
The Incan ruler under whom the Incan empire reached its widest extent
Irrigation
The artificial application of water to the land or soil; used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall; advanced irrigation systems in both Chaco (capture of runoff that is transported to fields using canals) and Machu Picchu (providing clean water to households; piping system displays social stratification, i.e. water moves from the top-down)
Kennewick Man
The name for the skeletal remains of a prehistoric man found in Kennewick, Washington in the 1990's, one of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found; there were many debates regarding whether the Kennewick man was a Native American
Kiva
Large underground chamber used by the Anasazi for religious ceremonies
Llama
Like the alpaca, llamas were found in abundance in the Machu Picchu burial caves; they served as a source of food, their wool was used to create garments, and they played a role in funeral and other religious ceremonies
Machu Picchu
Inca royal estate (used a country palace for emperor and his entourage) hidden by dense vegetation; advanced Incan architecture along slopes and canals (creation of terraces); centralization of political power with distinct moiety/social stratification; advanced irrigation system; utilization of varying altitudes/climates; few domesticated animals; fine textiles as major dimension of life; khipu used for information storage and retrieval; knowledge based on comparing historical and archeological context
Macaw
Parrot; breeding site in Cases Grandes which was then imported to Chaco Canyon; found in burials, still confusion regarding their purpose
Matrilineal Principles of Social Organization
A unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the female line; far rarer societies; appear to be associated with horticulture, long-distance hunting, and warfare with distant enemies
Matrilocal Postmarital Residence
A cultural practice in which a newly married couple live in the bride's village of origin; it is often associated with matrilineal descent
Mesoamerica
Early civilization that included Mexico and Central America; based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production; relatively small society, no centralized political power, small agriculture, but mass production of goods and monumental structures; Casas Grandes has noticeable Mesoamerican features; in relation to cannibalism debate, film plays to preexisting public consciousness of stereotypes regarding Mesoamerican cultures
Moiety
One of two groups of clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for one another (often intermarry); Chaco had distinct moieties; could explain the ideological reasoning behind cannibalism
Moundbuilder Myth
Complex mounds found in Mississippi Valley (Cahokia) trigger a debate regarding the creator; argue that mounds built are far beyond the age/complexity of Native American inhabitants; question the presence of the "Old World" (Europeans, Israelites, Vikings) influence and therefore Native Americans seen as their brutal murderers
NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act)
Passed in 1990, this act (1) protects Indian graves on federal and tribal lands, (2) recognizes tribal authority over the treatment of unmarked graves, (3) prohibits the commercial selling of native dead bodies, (4) requires an inventory and repatriation of human remains held by federal government and institutions that receive federal funding, (5) requires these same institutions to return inappropriately acquired sacred objects, and (6) sets up process to determine ownership of human remains found on federal and tribal property; Kennewick Man debate
Ollantaytambo
More well-known Incan royal estate; estate belonged to Pachacuti, who conquored the region and built the town and a ceremonial center
Pachacuti
Emperor of Incan society; under his leadership, the Inca conquered all of Peru and then moved into neighboring lands; for his compound, Pachacuti was fond of flowers so a private garden was created; Pachacuti rebuilt the Temple of the Sun in Cuzco, a religious location (and potential motivation for some of his later religious reforms)
Paquimé (Casas Grandes)
Archaeological zone and its central site, located in northwestern Mexico in the modern-day Mexican state of Chihuahua; one of the locations along the Chaco Meridian; parrot breeding site (trade with Chaco Canyon for turquoise); major community with Mesoamerican features (no centralized political power, small agriculture, but mass production of goods and monumental structures)
Pueblo Alto
A Chacoan Anasazi great house and archaeological site located in Chaco Canyon; the center of a bead- and turquoise-processing industry that influenced the development of all villages in the canyon
Pueblo Bonito
Largest and best known Great House; rich with information but its multiple occupations and remodeling make it complex and difficult to decipher; cacao residue at Pueblo Bonito (suggestive of elite group); cannibalism present
Pueblo del Arroyo
A Chacoan Anasazi great house and notable archaeological site located in Chaco Canyon; only site in Chaco Canyon that has a tri-wall structure
Quipu
Knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records; used for information storage and retrieval
Reciprocity
A relation of mutual dependence or action or influence; can include the sharing of ideas or resources
Redistribution
A form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated
Royal Estate
A country palace used by Incan elite
Sapa Inca
The emperor of the Incan Empire; people believed that he was descended from the sun god; unlike the elite compounds, the residence of the emperor Sapa Inca is set apart physically in the southwest sector from all other domestic architecture (no house adjacent to or even near the royal compound)
Social Organization
The order of a social group as evidenced by the positions, roles, norms, and other constraints that control behavior and ensure predictability; an example is social stratification
State
A type of strong, highly centralized government with a professional ruling class; it is highly stratified and diversified internally, with residential patterns often based on occupational specialization
Stela
A stone or wooden slab erected for funerals or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living; can also be used as a territorial marker to delineate land ownership
Sun Dagger
At Fajada Butte, spiral petroglyph carved onto cliff wall used to mark sun location to tell time
Terrace Agriculture
Utilized in Machu Picchu, terraces that were placed along slopes and canals aided crop production by blocking the wind, providing more direct sunlight, and efficiently draining rain water
Tri-Wall Structure
Structure composed of three rings created by sandstone; Pueblo de Arroyo is the only site in Chaco Canyon that has this structure; could potentially represent a site of intense cultural mixing with northern regions
Christy Turner
Believed there was interpersonal violence and cannibalism going on in the Southwestern North America (specifically Chaco Canyon); noticed and studied processed human bones; many question if his theories have gone too far (see cannibalism everywhere)
Turquoise
One of the most valued imports to Chaco; many pieces found in Great Houses of Pueblo Bonito as well as burials, suggestive of elite group and luxurious reputation; believed to be a cacao-turquoise exchange with Cerrillos, New Mexico
Urban
Relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
Vilcabamba
A city founded by Manco Inca; the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule
Thomas Windes
An archaeologist who researched the population of Chaco; studied location and number of hearths per household in order to draw some conclusions regarding population size, seasonality, and hearth usage (domestic or ritual) in Chaco