How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

94 terms

Taxonomy

STUDY
PLAY
taxonomy
science of classification
Carolus Linnaeus
came up with what is known as the modern system of classification
bionomial system
based on a two-part name for each organism
genus
first part of the two-part name for each organism
species
second part of the two-part name for each organism
domain Bacteria
made up of prokaryotes; includes bacteria
domain Archaea
made up of prokaryotes; includes extremophiles
extremophiles
organisms that live in extremely harsh environments that most other organisms could not
halophiles
organisms that live in extremely salty conditions
thermophiles
organisms that live in extremely hot conditions
methanogens
extreme anaerobes that release methane gas as a waste product
domain Eukarya
made up of eukaryotes
kingdom Protista
eukaryotes; contains organelles and a true nucleus; most unicellular, some form colones
division
another term for phylum
nonvascular plants
plants without vascular tissue
vascular plants
has vascular tissue found in plants
seedless plants
plants with ferns
gymnosperms
plants with cones
angiosperms
plants with flowers
xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and minerals move in some plants
pholem
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
spores
ferns have _____ which can be scattered by wind
conifer
refers to teh cones that carry the seeds of plants
monocot
plants named for their cotyledons
cotyledon
single-seed leaves
dicot
plants that have two seed leaves; netlike veins in their leaves; flower parts in multiple of four or five, vascular tissue arranged in a ring, a taproot
kingdom Fungi
eukaryotic; multicellular; have a filamentous structure; multinucleate; heterotrophic; absorptive feeders; classified as decomposers
kingdom Animalia
eukaryotic; multicellular; heterotrophic; most diverse of six kingdoms
sessile
nonmoving
foot
how mollusks move
visceral mass
where the organs of mollusks are contained
mantle
region of mollusk that may secrete a shell
metanephridia
excretory tubes; mini kidneys; in each segment of annelids
Malpighian tubules
excretory organs of insects and other terrestrial arthropods
taxa
levels of organizations
domains
a taxonomic category above the kingdom level
Monera
prokaryotic bacteria, blue-green algae, and various primitive pathogens
decomposers
organisms that recycle dead matter
pathogens
disease-causing bacteria
genetic engineering
technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
conjugation
primitive form of sexual reproduction
amoeba
naked freshwater or marine or parasitic protozoa that form temporary pseudopods for feeding and locomotion
paramecium
ciliated (it propels itself via cilia) protist that lives in fresh water and eats other tiny organisms for food
euglenas
green unicellular algae found in fresh water, when they're in sunlight, they're autotrophs, without sunlight, they're heterotrophs, contains pigments that helps find light sources for food, moves using flagellum
heterotophic eukaryotes
all fungi are _____
extracellular digestion
digestion that takes place outside of the cell
saprobes
organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter
chitin
making up fungi cell wall
pioneer organisms
organisms that are the first to colonize a barren environment in an ecological succession
gametophyte
the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
sporophyte
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
cell
basic unit of all forms of life
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ
group of tissues that work together to perform related functions
porifera
sponges
cnidarians
hydra and jellyfish
platyhelminthes
flatworm and tapeworms
germ layers
main layers that form various tissues and organs of the body
ectoderm
outermost layer; becomes skin and nervous system
endoderm
innermost layer; becomes viscera (guts) or digestive system
mesoderm
middle layer; becomes blood, muscles, bones
diploblastic
animals with only two cell layers
mesoglea
middle glue, holds the ectoderm and endoderm together
triploblastic
animals that have three true cell layers
radial symmetry
body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body
bilateral symmetry
body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves
coelom
fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm
acoelomates
animals with no body cavity
pseudocoelomates
animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm
coelomates
animals with a true coelom
fragmentation
a kind of reproduction that occurs when an individual breaks up into pieces, each of which grows into a new individual
hermaphorodites
having both male and female parts
polyp
form of porifera; vase shaped; mostly sessile
medusa
form of porifera; upside-down bowl shaped; mostly motile
gastrovascular cavity
digestive chamber with a single opening
lysosomes
filled with enzymes used to break down food
cnidocytes
stinging cells
nematocysts
stingers
nematodes
roundworms
annelids
segments worms like earthworms, leeches
nephridia
excretion of nitrogen waste (urea)
closed circulatory system
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
mollusks
squids, octopuses, slugs, clams, snails
soft body
_____ are often protected by a hard calcium-containing shell
open circulatory system
system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels
hemocoels
blood filled spaces found in open circulatory systems (1)
sinuses
blood filled spaces found in open circulatory systems (2)
arthropods
insecta (grasshopper), crustacea (shrimp, crab), arachnida (spider)
trachea
air ducts that bring air from the environment into hemocoels
echinoderms
sea stars (starfish), sea urchins
chordates
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
notochord
rod that extends the length of the body; serves as flexible axis
homeotherms
animals that maintain a consistent body temperature
endotherms
animals that are able to raise their body temperature