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AP ENVIRONMENTAL EXAM
Terms in this set (58)
Countries which provide free,healthy and secured atmosphere to live.
Countries that do not provide free healthy and secured atmosphere to live.
Resources that can be renewed or replaces over time.
What are examples of renewable resources?
Wind, sunlight, tides, biomass
Natural resources which cannot be renewed once they are completely consumed. They are replenished very slowly.
What are examples of non-renewable resources?
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gases
The branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings
The field of science that studies the interactions of the physical,chemical, and biological components with the organisms in their environment.
The impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
What countries is the ecological footprint much larger?
Denoted a situation where individuals acted independently and rationally according to each other's self-interest behavior contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource
Tragedy of Commons/Garrett Hardin
Ecological levels of organization
Tectonic plates are moving away from each other is called
When continental and oceanic plates collide the thinner and more dense oceanic plate is overridden by the thicker and less dense continental plate. The oceanic plate is forced down into the mantle in a process known as "subduction"
Where transforming slide sideways past each other. Lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed. Found on the sea floor.
Has formed from sediment deposited by water or air.
Having solidified from lava or magma relating to or involving volcanic processes
Denoting rock that has undergone transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural agencies
Non-living chemical and physical parts of the environmental that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems
Any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism costumes
Identify the various levels of consumers
States that the total energy of an isolated system is constant;energy can be transformed from one to another,but cannot be create or destroyed.
State the 1st Law of Thermodynamic
Law stating that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature; any spontaneous process results in an increase of entropy.
2nd Law of thermodynamics
How do the biochemical cycles illustrate the Law of Conservation of Matter?
LOCOMO stated that matter cannot be created it destroyed; it is simply changed. The carbon goes through different things/cycles and it goes through changed, but it does not get destroyed.
What is GPP?
Rate of increase in body weight or rate of organic matter synthesized by producers + the rate of respiration and other damages
What is NPP?
the rate of organic matter synthesized by photosynthesis by producers - the rate of energy utilized for respiration by the producers
How are GPP and NPP related?
GPP is the amount of chemical energy as biomass that primary producers create in a given length of time.
One of two plant types, occurring in an environment which new substrate devoid of vegetation and other organisms usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from retreated glacier, is deposited.
The series of communities changes which take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat
Are hardly species which are the first to colonize previously disrupted or damaged ecosystems, beginning a chain of ecological succession that ultimately leads to a more biodiverse steady-state ecosystem
Expressed a biological community of plants and animals and fungi which through the process of ecological succession in the development of vegetation in an area over time, had reached a steady state.
The series of processes by which carbon compounds are inter converted in the environmental, chiefly involving the incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels
Series of processes by which nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted I. The environment and in living organisms, including nitrogen fixation and decomposition
Describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere hydrosphere and biosphere
The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits. Organisms with the desired traits, such as size or taste, are artificially mated or cross-pollinated with organisms with sill molar desired traits
A large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat.
The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism
Place or position
•live in specific environments
•more prone to extinction when environmental conditions change
•have fewer competitions if environment is constant
•many different places
•can eat variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environments
•if environment is changeable, this "ist" will survive better than the other.
Species that help ecological communities run smoothly; they determine the type and number of community species.
Species that alert us to harmful changes taking place in biological communities.
Is a plant or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and which had a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause.
Is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemically is cosmopolitan distribution
The optimal ability of an organism or species to survive and reproduce successfully.
The number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size
Population growth in which the growth rate decreases with increasing number of individuals until it becomes zero when the population reached a maximum
An act of going past or beyond a point, target, or limit.
Selection occurring when a population is far below the carrying capacity of an unstable environment.
• short life span
Selection occurring when a population is at or near the carrying capacity of the environment, which is usually stable
•tends to favor individuals that successfully compete for resources
•slowly developing young
•long life span
Is simply the number of species present in a sample, community, or taxonomic group.
Refers to how close. I. Numbers each species in an environment is.
Factors where the effects on the size or growth of a population vary with the density of the population itself
And factor limiting the size of a population. Whose effect is not dependent on the number of individuals in the population
Density independent factorp
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Explain why you agree or disagree with the following propositions: a. Stabilizing population is not desirable because, without more consumers, economic growth would stop. b. The world will never run out of resources because we can use technology to find substitutes and to help us reduce resource waste.
What are this chapter’s three big ideas? Explain how the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest controlled experiments illustrated the three scientific principles of sustainability.
You are a population ecologist studying white-tailed deer populations in your state. Populations have been growing exponentially for some time, and food is becoming a limiting factor. Many deer are dying of starvation, and others are in bad health. What do you recommend to state officials? Should people intervene and try to limit deer populations through relocation or hunting? Or should they do nothing and wait for the population to regulate itself? Explain.
Which principle of island biogeography is NOT correct? (a) A larger protected area should contain more species. (b) Protected areas that are closer together should contain more species. (c) National parks can be thought of as islands of biodiversity. (d) A larger protected area will have fewer habitats. (e) Marine reserves can be thought of as islands of biodiversity.