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303 terms

Psych 111- 3rd Exam (EA)

STUDY
PLAY
Developmental Psychology
studies aspects of lifespan development from conception through death
-explores physical, cognitive, social and emotional development
Physical Development
Cephalocaudal: head to feet
Proximodistal: center moving outward
Cephalocaudal
head to feet development
Proximodistal
center moving outward development
Prenatal Development
Germinal Phase (conception-2 weeks)
Zygote: fertilized egg
Placenta: structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from mother's bloodstream; allows waste to pass in and out
Germinal Phase
conception-2 weeks
Zygote
fertilized egg
Placenta
structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from mother's bloodstream; allows waste to pass in and out
Embrionic Stage
2-8 weeks
-head, face, and neck develop
-buds for limbs form and grow
-major organs/digestive system differentiating
-heart beat begins
Fetal Stage (3rd month)
8th week
-digestive organs begin to function
-buds for teeth form
-sex organs develop rapidly
-arms/fingers move
Fetal Stage (4th month)
-face looks human
-lower body outgrows head
-bones are defined
Fetal Stage (5th month)
-fingernails and toenails appear
-Lanugo: fine, wooly hair over body
-Vernix: waxy coating collects
Fetal Stage (6th month)
-eyebrows/lashes well defined
-eyes completely formed
Fetal Stage (7th month)
-fetus capable of life outside uterus
Fetal Stage (8/9 month)
-fat is deposited for late use
-fingernails beyond fingertips
-lanugo is shed
-myelination of brain takes place
-chief organs increase functioning
-vernix covers body
Teratogens
-harmful toxins that affect development resulting in defect, damage, or abnormality
Important concepts with teratogens
-Dose: how much?
-Basic heredity: vulnerable vs. sturdy
-multiple determination: stress, nutrition, lack of medical care
-Age of organism at exposure
Drugs or chemicals and teratogens
-increaased understanding of the role of prenatal exposure to drugs on the developing child
-ex. thalidomide
Effect of Stress on Development
-prolonged stress linked with prematurity and low birth weight
Effect of Smoking on Development
-mild stimulant
-increase fetal activity
-low birth weight
-increased SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
Effect of Marijuana on Development
-low birthweight
-disturbed sleep in newborns
-reduced attention to environment
Effect of Heroin on Development
-premature birth weight
-tremulous behavior
-poor sleep
-poor sucking and feeding
-risk of SIDS
Effect of Cocaine on Development
-"crack babies"
-premature size/weight
-tremulous
-high pitched crying
-respiratory and regurgitation problems
-rigidity
-withdrawal symptoms
-deformities
Comorbidity
-abuse multiple substances
Effect of Alcohol on Development
-leading teratogen in the US causing mental retardation
-FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
-Physical Symptoms: growth retardation, head and facial abnormalities, microcephaly, skeletal, brain and heart damage
-Behavioral Symptoms: poor impulse control, poor attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive deficits
-Fetal Alcohol effects: some symptoms of FAS, but less physical symptoms (ARND) alcohol related neurological disorders)
Parental Age Effect on Development
-may be a factor in birth defects and/or certain developmental disabilities
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Vision]
-poor fixation ability
-limited ability to discriminate color
-estimated visual acuity of between 20/200 and 20/400
-preference for human faces
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Hearing]
-fetus can hear sounds around 6 months in utero
-recognize a mother's voice
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Taste and Smell]
-both present at birth, preference for sweet
-love the smell of chocolate and banana
-hate the rotten egg smell
-mom can tell who their baby is based on smell
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Touch]
-heat, cold, pressure and pain all present at birth
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Reflexes]
-inborn, automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation -ex. puff of air in your eye you blink
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Rooting Reflex]
-survival value, stroke cheek and baby will turn head toward the stimulation
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Stepping Reflex]
Basis for complex motor skills, with bare feet touching floor infant will mimic a stepping response (disappears around 2 months)
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Sucking Reflex]
-place a finder in mouth and baby will suck, permits feeding
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Eyeblink Reflex]
-shine a bright light or clap, they will close eyelids; protects from strong stimulation
Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of Newborns/Infants [Babinski Reflex]
-stroke the heel to see reactions of the toes which flex/fan out; normal in infants, if persists can indicate neurological problems
--you want it to be there with infants but then they want it to go away (may be a sign of neurological delays)
Cross and Fine Motor Development [Age 2-3]
-gross motor: walk rhythmically, jump, hop, push a riding toy with feet
-fine motor: removing simple clothing items, start to use a spoon
Cross and Fine Motor Development [Age 3-4]
-gross motor: walks upstairs alternating feet, catches ball by trapping in chest, rides a tricycle
-fine motor: fasten/unfasten large buttons, use scissors, copies lines, circles, draws tadpole person
Cross and Fine Motor Development [4-5]
-gross motor: walks downstairs alternating feet, runs smoothly, catches ball with hands, rapid/smooth steering
-fine motor: uses a fork, cuts with scissors on lines, copies triangles and some letters
Cross and Fine Motor Development [5-6]
-gross motor: increases running speed, true skipping, ride bicycle
-fine motor: uses knife to cut food, tie shoes, draw 6 part person, copies words and numbers
Gender Differences
boys ahead of girls in force and power, girls ahead in the motor and gross motor skills which involve good balance
Temperament
-relatively constant basic disposition which is inherent in a person that underlies and modulates his/her behavior
Thomas and Chess
-identified three basic temperaments for infants, difficult babies, slow to warm and easy babies
Difficult Children (10%)
-often wail, cry and are negative in new situations, eat and sleep irregularly
Slow to Warm Up (15%)
-often inactive, adapt slowly and can be withdrawn and show a negative mood
Easy (40%)
-cheerful, adaptable, easily establish routines
Mixture (35%)
...
Goodness of fit
-The match between the characteristics of the infant and his/her family is critical to development
-some are better matches than others
--parents sensitive to the child's needs
***interaction between genetics and environment is key with temperament
Attachment
the affectionate bond between an infant and tis caretaker
-studied by Ainsworth in her attachment paradigm still being used today
-the "strange situation" allows researchers to assess attachment relationships
Basic Premises regarding attachment
-infants express their wish to be attached by wishing to be close to their caretaker and showing signs of distress when their caretaker departs
-this emotional upset is separation anxiety
Separation Anxiety
-mothers are the most common first object of attachment
-initial attachments can occur with mother and with another person at the same time
-the number of a child's attachments increase rapidly
Stranger Anxiety
-develops when infants are around 6-7 months ending around 18 months
-if a stranger approaches, the infant becomes afraid and reaches for the caregiver
-structure of the stranger situation
--ex. mom or a dad are brought into a room, instructor shows them and the baby the playroom with the toys, do the babies look to the parent while playing playing with toys, the stranger comes in and watches, parents leave and stranger helps kid play, then parents come back in and comfort the kids
4 Types of Attachment Patterns: Ainsworth
Securely Attached
Avoident Attached
Resistant Attached (anxious, ambivalent)
Securely Attached
child uses the parent as a safe base to exploree, when separated the child may not cry during absence, seek contact when parent returns, decrease crying if present (~65% of U.S infants)
Avoident Attached
unresponsive to parent when present, no distress when she leaves, react to stranger similar as to parent, slow to greet parent when she returns, ~20% show this pattern in the US
Resistant Attached (anxious, ambivalent)
seek closeness with their parents, fail to explore, upon return display angry, resistant behavior, cannot be comforted, ~10-15% US
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachement
-greatest amount of insecurity, in reunion show disorganized, confused behaviors
-seem confused, glazed and spacey
-mothers are more avoid ant and inconsistent with lack of sensitivity to infant's needs
~5% of infants in the US
Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Authoritarian
Authoritative
Permissive
Uninvolved
Authoritarian
-restrictive parenting, insist on obedience, rigid rules, no explanations and insensitivity
-preschoolers were moody, easily annoyed, unfriendly, less motivated
Permissive
-accepting and lax with few demands, little monitoring, few controls
-preschoolers were impulsive, aggressive, bossy self-centered, low in independence and achievement
Uninvolved (Maccoby)
-removed or hostile parenting, overwhelmed with own stressors have little time or energy to parent
-child high in aggression, temper tantrums, perform poorly in classroom
Attachment Deprivation: Harlow Monkey Studies
-reared monkeys in isolation or with a surrogate mother
-after 6 months sent back to colony
-isolated monkeys showed indifference, were terrified or were aggressive with other monkeys, failed to form relationships with opposite sex, were abusive to their offspring
-Attachment and contact comfort: hypothesized that animals/humans need warmth, comfort as a primary need
Peer Relationships
-arena for exercising independence from adults and adult control
-equal footing relationship
-help translate and establish trends/group belonging, behavior codes
-serve as role models
-provide emotional support
-younger kids say they're my friend because they're my friend, and as they get older the meaning of relationships become more meaningful
Adolescent Growth Spurt
rapid growth in height and weight as the body is preparing for hormonal shifts/maturation
Asynchrony
certain body parts grow at different speeds leading to a lack of proportion
Prefrontal Cortex
final maturation of the prefrontal cortex takes p;ace in late adolescence
-this area is responsible for organization, planning, emotional regulation and impulse control
Puberty
-sexual functions reach maturity
-impacts social and emotional development
Menarche
first occurrence of menstruation
Spermarche
first occurrence of ejaculation
Early Maturing Males
have positive self-concepts
Early Maturing Females
greater chance of depression, anxiety, and eating disorders
Elkind- Adolescent Egocentrism
way of thinking the world is focused on themselves
Elkind- Imaginary Audience
belief hat everyone in the environment is concerned with the behavior/appearance of him/herself
-think the focus of everyone else is on you
Elkind- Personal Fable
view him/herself as somehow unique or heroic
-the way they see themselves in the world is unique and heroic
Elkind- Invincibility Fable
false sense that he or she can't be harmed
Elkind- Storm and Stress
not as frequent as once thought
Elkind- Conflict
most conflict with parent occurs about chores and dress style than sex/drugs
Peers
-serve as role models and sources of comfort and support
-research supports the presence of "peer pressure" in general we see peers often encouraging socially positive behaviors
Developmental Theories as Stage Theories
-individuals must progress through stages in a particular order, stages build on each other
-progress is strongly related to age
-development is marked by discontinuities that result in dramatic transitions
Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development
-how a child thinks, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving
-development involves two processes
1) assimilation: how to fit new information into the present system of knowledge
2) accommodation: existing structures dont fit so a child must develop new schemas
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Sensorimotor
-Piaget
-birth-7 years
-infants learn through concrete motor actions; by touching, tasting and smelling
-accomplish object permanence (6 months)
---> peekaboo
-develop capacity for mental imagery
-organize information into categories
-increasingly able to use purposeful activity
Preoperational
-Piaget
-2-7 years
-gradually improve in mental images
---> having a tea party with a little kid with an imaginary tea cup
-can pretend
-action oriented
-develop representational thought
-have NOT mastered conservation: basic properties of an object remain stable if superficial properties change
Flaws of thinking in pre operational children
Centration
Irreversibility
Egocentricism
Centration
-flaw of thinking in pre operational children
-focus on one aspect of a problem and neglect other aspects
----> think more means taller, can't think about tall and wide
Irreversibility
-flaw of thinking in pre operational children
-inability to envision reversing an action
---> smushed play dough is still the same amount as it was before
Egocentricism
-flaw of thinking in pre operational children
-thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's point of view
---> m&m's in a crayon box the girl thinks the little boy will also think that there are m&ms in the box
Concrete Operations
(7-11)
-the child performs operations on tangible objects and events
-show increased flexibility in thinking
-Hierarcheies
---> the number of daisies v. carnations and flowers in general
-can begin to see cause and effect
-masters reversibility and decentration
-can retrace thoughts
Formal Operations
(12-up)
-begin to see abstract reasoning
-understand metaphor and deductive reasoning
-become more systematic in thinking
-can discuss moral values
Why Piaget was criticized?
-for underestimating children's abilities, not focusing enough on individual differences; much research still supports his theories/beliefs
Theory of Lifespan Development
-Erik Erikson
-believes each stage involves a psychosocial crisis: a transition which is organized around social relationships and that personality is determined by these stages
Kohlberg
-studied moral development using the Heinz dilemma
-found various stages of moral development based on responses to this and similar situations
Lifespan issues in development
-our country is getting older
-living more productive lives for more years
-more career shifts seen in the population
Intellectual functioning and age
Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence
basic information processing skills
-more likely to decline with age
Crystallized Intelligence
-application of accumulated knowledge remains more stable
Langer and Rodin Study
-maintaining a sense of control over one's life leads to greater psychological well-being in the elderly
Ways to promote healthy aging
-increase healthy behaviors
-promote companionship
-take vitamin supplements
-stay active physically and intellectually
-volunteer or work
-maintain positive relationships with family/friends
-have a positive attitude
-decrease sun exposure
-decrease smoking, drinking
-be a health care consumer; ask questions
-explore medication interactions
-find faith
-recent programs supporting the elderly and children in daycare
Personality
a distinctive pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that are consistent in an individual over time
Personality Traits
long term disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
Cattel's Theory of Personality
-Studied traits using factor analysis
-developed the 16 personality factors questionnaire
-Ex. reserved-outgoing; relaxed-tense; trusting-suspicious
McRae and Costa
-developed the "BIG FIVE" Personality traits
-believed most personality traits fall under these categories
"Big Five" personality Traits
OCEAN
-openness
-conscientiousness
-extraversion
-agreeableness
-neuroticism
Psychodynamic Theory
-Freud's psychoanalytic theory
-focus on the influences of early childhood
-emphasis on unconscious motives/conflicts
-primary focus on sexual and aggressive urges
Freud's basic structures of personality
Id
Ego
Superego
Id
impulses/dominated by pleasure/avoid pain
Ego
"voice of reason"
-mediator of id/superego
-helps find compromises
Superego
Moral component of personality, rigid standards
Defense Mechanisms [definition]
responses to anxiety which is caused by internal conflicts; attempts to reduce distress of anxiety/guilt
Defense Mechanisms [examples]
Displacement
Rationalization
Denial
Displacement
something happens that makes you aggressive, you know if you act on those impulses you'll get in trouble, so your body displaces the aggression on a safer target (family member, dog)
Rationalization
-you come up with reasons for a behavior that is not true
-someone says why study for a test, even if I study for it it won't help
-restaurant forgets to put your meal on the receipt, but people think its the restaurant's fault and that by walking away they are not stealing
Denial
-what test?
Carly Jung
-analytical psychology
-freudian influenced
-personal unconscious
-collective unconscious
-first described the introvert/extrovert personality type
Personal unconscious
material which one has repressed or forgotten from personal experience
Collective unconscious
traces of inherited memories from one's ancestral archetypes or images and thoughts with universal meaning
Introvert
-those preoccupied with the interal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences
-more reclusive
Extravert
-those interested in the external world of other people and things
-more outgoing and friendly
Adler
-individual psychology
-stresses the motivation for superiority
-universal attempt to improve oneself and master life's challenges
Inferiority Complex
-Adler
-everyone must overcome feelings of weakness in comparison to competent adults/siblings
Compensation
-Adler
-efforts to develop one's own abilities in repines to inferiorities
---> not good at sports, so ill be good at school
Overcompensation
-Adler
-attempts to "conceal" one's own feelings of inferiority
----> driving a Ferrari because you are insecure
Reciprocal Determination
-Bandura
-reinfocement history and cognition influences behavior
-we see what we expect to see
-we place ourselves in places which will confirm our beliefs
Self Efficacy
-belief that one can set out to accomplish tasks/goals
-acquired from 4 sources:
1) mastery of a new skill, overcome obstacles
2) successful and competent role models
3) positive feedback and encouragement
4) awareness of feelings/manage responses
Locus of Control
-Rotter
-internal locus of control
-external locus of control
Internal Locus of Control
people believe they are responsible for what happens to them
External Locus of Control
people believe their lives are controlled by luck, fate, and other people
Mischel's Persona by Situation Interaction
-people express particular traits in particular situations
-most likely to see consistency within these similar situations
-some traits are more situationally determined
Humanistic Theory/Perspective
-focus on the inner experiences of one's personality and development
-unique human qualities
-freedom and potential for human growth
-optimistic view of human nature: can control impulses, not based on irrational needs and conflicts
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
-a goal of humans is to be self-actualized: a basic hierarchy of needs exist
-innate drive towards personal growth
-often seen as a pyramid of needs
Low Self-Esteem
-Maslow
-when you feel you are validated because of the respect of others
---> look for recognition
Carl Rogers
-Accepts the self-actualizing tendency explores individuals who do and do not function well
-Looked at the relationship between the self (one's conscious feelings) and the person (sum of experiences, feelings, perceptions, wishes)
Congruence
when the sense of self (who they think they are) and the person (who they are) are consistent it allows positive functioning
Incongruence
when the sense of self and the personal are in conflict
Unconditional Positive Regard
attempt to resolve conflict; accept one may have acted badly and still be a good person; accepts one in a positive and accepting manner
Biological/Genetic influences on personality
-Sheldon
-Body types "somatotypes" linked with personality characteristics
-Endomorph
-Mesomorph
-Ectomorph
Endomorph
-round, soft body, few muscles
-tolerant, calm, needs affection
Mesomorph
-muscular, upright, firm, mature
-adventurous, competitive, less empathic
Ectomorph
-thin, delicate, few muscles, smart
-shy, introverted, self-conscious
Eysenck's Theory
-personality is determined by a large extent to one's genes
-all of personality emerges from 3 higher order traits
---> extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
Extraversion
-being sociable, assertive and lively
Neuroticism
-anxious, tense, moody, low self esteem
Psychoticism
-egocentric, cold, impulsive
Terror Management Theory
-explores our need to use self-esteem as a buffer against anxiety over our mortality
-research has found that when "reminded" about one's mortality:
1) subjects give harsher penalties to rule breakers
2) give greater rewards to those upholding cultural standards
3) respond more negatively to those critical of their countries
4) show more respect for cultural icons
---> kids dress up like firefighters after 9/11
Stress
-any circumstance that threatens or is perceived to threaten one's feel being
-has both psychological and physiological components
Frustration
-the pursuit of a goal is prevented
Conflict
-two or more competing and incompatible goals occur
3 General Types of Conflicts
-Approach-Approach
-Avoidance-Avoidance
-Approach-Avoidance
Approach-Approach Conflicts
-a choice must be made between two desirable goals
-least stressful type of conflict
Avoidance-Avoidane Conflicts
-a choice must be made between two unattractive goals
-would you rather be shot or murdered?
Approach-Avoidance Conflicts
-a choice must be made about to achieve a goal which has both positive and negative attributes
Change
any notable difference in one's life which requires adaptation
-both positive and negative life changes can be stressful
Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Scale
-Death of a spouse 100 points
-Marital Reconciliation 45 points
-Change in Financial Status 38 points
Pressure
-expectations or demands that one behave in a particular manner
General Adaptation Syndrome
-selye
-all types of stressful situations lead to a similar stress response consisting of 3 stages:
1) alarm
2) resistance
3) exhaustion
Alarm
the body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system is activated (sense danger)
Resistance
body is on "high alert"
Exhaustion
increased physiological vulnerability to stress
Kanner
-studied stress in terms of "daily hassles"
-the sum total of mundane life tasks combine to create significant levels of stress
-stressors associated with juggling multiple roles
Coping
-what strategies you use to buffer against the stress cycle
-active efforts to master, reduce or accept the demands created by stress
-adaptive and maladaptive strategies
Maladaptive Coping Strategies
displaced aggression
catharsis
self-indulgence
Displaced Aggression
-harmful act to someone verbally or physically, who is not actually the true "object" of the hostility
Catharsis
-release of emotional tension
Self-indulgence
-compensate for deprived/frustrated feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area
---> ex. getting a new pair of shoes after a bad exam
Defense Mechanisms
Compensation
Denial
Fantasy
Identification
Intellectualization
Isolation
Projection
Rationalization
Reaction formation
Regression
Repression
Sublimation
Denial
can only be adaptive for people in war zones (the real threat is just so bad)
Constructive Coping Strategies
-healthy efforts to deal with a stressful event making one more resilient to the stressor
---Problem Focused
---Emotion Focused
---Optimism
---Social Supports
Problem Focused
-coping strategy
-how to change the situation
---> what is the problem? stop always being late, mom makes sure everyone's backpacks are packed and at the front door
Emotion Focused
-coping strategy
-how to change perceptions/reactions to the situation
---> for the same problem of being late: the mom is not always late but is always afraid of being late, what would happen if you were late? nothing significant would happen, change the attitude and their perception of the problem
Optimism
-coping strategy
-people with more positive outlooks handle stress better
---> "despondex" help people who are too optimistic
Social Supports
-coping strategy
-Presence of social supports provide adaptive coping/release from pressures
----> benefit of family dinners
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
-enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event (war, car accident, tornado, abuse, and chronic stress conditions now included)
-replaying or recurrent thoughts of trauma
-phobic avoidance of similar places
-oversensitivity to sounds/increased startle reaction
-nervousness
-increased irritability or aggressiveness
-blunted emotion: numbness or helplessness (overwhelming emotions)
-sleep disturbance
-cognitive misperceptions
-decreased sense of trust
-less future oriented
Post 9/11 Research Findings
-much initial research looked at college students, flight attendants, pilots and firefighters
---people easily accessible and also those directly affected (don't have to be directly affected to have felt the impact)
-researchers relied on other findings specific to reactions to other traumas (Challenger explosion, hurricanes) commonly note increased anxiety reactions
Research on Children's reactions to 9/11
-extensive TV coverage of 9/11 led to much exposure to the events for children and higher rates of viewing was associated with higher rates of PTSD (kids don't always know they are watching a replay and not just a plane continuously hitting a building)
Philips et al (2004)
evaluated direct exposure through loss and indirect exposure through TV viewing
-Results:
-85% of children note that it had shaken their feelings of safety and security
-common reactions reported by children
-77% of parents reported concerns about their children's safety
kids reported watching "a lot" of media coverage; the majority of parents/kids talked about it together
-children who indicated they watched a lot of TV reported significantly more negative reactions
-parents who reported more negative reasons also noted greater negative reactions by their children. These children also identified significantly more negative reactions and stress
-active coping/relief efforts were not seen to significantly decrease anxiety
Type A personality
-competitive, impatient, and more prone to aggression
-have 2x the risk of disease
Type B personality
-more relaxed, easy going and less quick to anger
Stress in General
-lowers body's immune responses
Conscientiousness and physical health
-associated with positive physical health and higher rates of longevity
--may gravitate toward healthier environments
--less reactivity to stress
--less likely to exhibit unhealthy habits like smoking, drinking, risk taking
Health Impairing Behaviors
-related to stress
-smoking
-poor nutritional habits
-lack of exercise
-alcohol/drug use
-risky behaviors
Smoking and Health
-smokers have significantly shorter life expectancy than non-smokers
-lung cancer, heart disease as well as other cancers, hypertension and emphysema are all smoking related illnesses
-smokers underestimate the health risks
-smokers overestimate their ability to quit (Weiten says long term success at 25%)
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
-sexually transmitted diseases remain a major public health challenge in the US
-CDC estimates that approx. 19 million new infections occur each year, almost half of them among young people 15-24 years old
Women and STDs
-women at greater risk than men for STDs and their health consequences
-chlamydia and gonorrhea pose a health risk of infertility if untreated
Aging and Stress
-declining health
-loss of family and friends
-employment and financial problems
-alienation from the larger society
-loneliness
Coping strategies for the elderly
-exercise improves physiological and psychological well being, although health restrictions may limit participation
-recreational activities such as a buffer and coping strategy
-build a sense of community can be adaptive
-maladaptive coping includes substance abuse and social withdrawal
-elderly at risk for depression which is undiagnosed or untreated
-therapeutic interventions used to identify and reduce stress
-exercise can reduce stress
-pets and plants reduce stress
Physical Abuse
non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for them
Emotional Abuse
pattern of behavior that impairs a child's emotional development of self-worth
Child Neglect
absence of adequate social, emotional and physical care
Facts about Various Children Services
-Of the nearly 2 million reports that received a CPS response, 90.3 percent received an investigation response
-Of the 1,793,724 reports that received an investigation, 436,321 were substantiated
-24, 976 were found to be indicated
-1,262,118 were found to be unsubstantiated
Fatalities
-The number of reported child fatalities due to child abuse and neglect has fluctuated during the past 5 years
-A nationally estimated 1,560 children died from abuse and neglect
-Younger children are more vulnerable to death as a result of child abuse and neglect
-4/5 of all child fatalities were younger than 4 years old
-boys had higher child fatality rate than girls
-4/5 of child fatalities were cuased by one or more parents
-30% of the fatalities were perpetrated by the child's mother acting alone and 1/5 of child fatalities were caused by both parents
-perpetrators without a parental relationship to the child accounted for 12.5% of fatalities
-Child fatalities with unknown perpetrator relationship data accounted for 8.3%
Risk Factors
Certain characteristics which increase the risk or potential for abuse. May be in the child, family, community and society
-child factors
-parental factors
-community factors
Protective Factors
factors that may buffer or protect a child from maltreatment
Child Factors
-risk factor related to stress and abuse
-prematurity, disabilities, difficult temperament, childhood trauma
Parental Factors
-risk factor related to stress and abuse
-low frustration tolerance, parental conflict, unrealistic developmental expectations, look to child as source of love and support, substance abuse
Community Factors
-risk factor related to stress and abuse
-lack of social supports and social services, poor economy, acceptance of violence and failure to value children
Developmental Implications of Abuse
-social: children/teachers rate more negatively, less popular, more withdrawn
-emotional: lower self-concept, more behavioral problems: restlessness, hyperactivity, antisocial
-cognitive: perform lower on IQ and achievement tests, lower readiness to learn in school
Cycle of Violence
-findings that those who are abused are at a greater risk for abusing
Social Learning Theory of Violence
-violent, aggressive children have learned those behaviors from their parents
Biological/Genetic Theory of Violence
-aggressiveness is a genetic characteristic "passed down" by a parent
Interaction Theory of Violence
-aggressive predisposition combined with an aggressive environment creates a cycle of violence
Breaking the Cycle of Violence
-promote cultural attitudes against using violence
-train children with non-violent conflict resolution
-train parents in healthy parenting techniques
Mental Disorder
any behavior or emotional state that causes distress or suffering, is maladaptive and disturbs relationships and the greater community
Legal Standards
Whether or not a person is in control of behavior and aware of the consequences of his/her actions
DSM-IVTR
standard reference book for all disorders
-around 300 mental disorders in this latest version
-descriptive and provides a set of criteria for diagnose
5 Axes or Dimensions of DSM-IVTR
1) Primary Clinical Problem
2) Personality Disorders and Intellectual Disability
3) Medical Conditions relevant to disorder
4) Social and Environmental Problems
5) Global Assessment of Functioning
Problems with DSM Classifications
-the danger of over-diagnosis
-the power of diagnostic labels
-many of the symptoms are based on subjective not objective measures
-some categories have political/social implications
Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Autism: impairment in communication skills, impairment in social interactions, repetitive behaviors
Asperger's Syndrome: higher level of communication skills, significant social impairment (facial feedback training)
ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
-inattention (lost things easily), impulsivity (blurt out answers) and/or hyperactively which is inappropriate for a child's particular developmental age
-~5% of school aged children
-more likely to be males
-genetic link/runs in families
-multimodal treatment approach: drugs and behavioral interventions
Conduct Disorder
-violate social norms
-physical aggression
-cruelty to animals
-lack remorse
-may be a precursor to antisocial personality
Tourette's Syndrome
-multiple motor and one or more vocal tics
-occur many times a day nearly every day or intermittently over a period of more than 1 year
-onset before 18
-does NOT need to interfere with functioning for diagnosis
Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-continuous feelings of worry, anxiety dread/foreboding
-restlessness
-difficulty concentrating
-irritability
-muscle tension
-sleep disturbance
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder [as a diagnosis]
-anxiety resulting from a clear/predictable danger or event
-reliving trauma in thoughts or dreams
-psychic numbing
-increased physiological arousal
EXTRA CREDIT: After Naomi was released form the hospital she did what?
Roller Blade
Panic Disorder
-recurring attack of intense fear or panic accompanied by feelings of impending doom or death
-symptoms include: trembling, shaking, dizziness, chest pain, sweating, heart palpitations, hot/cold flashes, sense of losing control
Fears and Phobias
exaggerated fear of a specific situation, activity or thing
Social Phobias
Fear of being in a situation where a person will be observed by others
Agoraphobia
Fear of being alone in public places from which espace might be difficult to help will be unavailable, at its worst one doesn't leave his/her home
Brontophobia
fear of thunderstorms
Arachibutyrophobic
fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth
Sesquipedalophobics
fear of long words
EXTRA CREDIT: anatiadaephobia
fear that wherever you are a duck is watching
Obsession and Compulsions
Obsession: a recurrent, persisitent and unwished for thought
-ex. contamination. need for orderliness, aggressive impulses or thoughts, obsessive worry about an accident happening
Compulsion: repetitive ritualized behavior in which people feel a lack of control over
-ex. cleaning, checking and hoarding, creates anxiety to not have things a certain way
Compulsive Hoarding Disorder: acquiring items with no use, failing to discard items with no/little value, interferes with normal living space
Mood Disorders: Depression
-sadness, lethargy, inactivity and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
-genetic link
-behavioral changes: slower motor reactions
-cognitive changes: cognitive distortions
-physical changes: alters immune functioning
Mania
-abnormally high level of energy
-great/special plans
-impulsive behavior
-grandiose schemes
-Pressured speech
-spending large amounts of money
-outbursts of anger
Bi-polar
-cycle through depression and mania
-at least one manic episode with history of depression
-responsive to lithium
-problem with compliance: miss the high
-high suicide risk
Somatoform Disorders
Somatization Disorder: history of diverse physical complaints which are psychological in origin
Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation with health concerns/worry about developing illnesses
Conversion Disorder: loss of physical function with no organic basis, usually a specific area or system affected
Personality Disorders
-rigid, maladaptive traits that cause great distress or lead to an inability to get along with others, or to function well in the world
---> pattern is inflexible, pervasive and of long duration
---> some question about the validity of the category
---> clusters identified: anxious/fearful, odd/eccentric and dramatic/impulsive
Odd/Eccentric
-paranoid personality disorder
--suspicious
--argumentative
--reluctant to confide in others because of fears information will be "used against" him/her
--looking out for trickery
--blame others and bears grudges
Schizoid Personality Disorder
-have very few if any friends or family relationships
-longer, choosing solitary activities
-indifferent to praise or criticism
-shows no warm or tender feelings to other people
Schizotypal
-almost looks schizophrenic
-bizarre patterns in behavior/peculiar
-uses unusual words
-sometimes has superstitious belief
**odd but not crazy
Dramatic/Impulsive
-antisocial personality disorder (used to be known as sociopath)
-likes to break rules/laws
-deceitful
-gladly take advantage of people
-lacks remorse
-can appear charming/friendly
-often intelligent
-history of conduct disorder
-ex. steal woman's wedding ring off her finger
Borderline Personality Disorder
-manipulative
-stable pattern of unstable relationships
-frantic efforts to avoid "abandonment"
-splitting: all good or bad
-self-mutilating behaviors
-impulsivity
-sexual promiscuity
-quick to anger
Histrionic Personality Disorder
-overly dramatic
-everything is trauma
-attention seekers
-seductive
-not genuine
-dependent on others
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
-feelings of grandiosity
-sense of privilege
-feels special
-expect favors from others
-takes advantage of others and lacks empathy
Anxious/Fearful
-Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
-Avoidant Personality Disorder
-Schizophrenia
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
-perfectionist
-preoccupied with details
-rules are essential
-particular
-serious and formal
-work gives pleasure
Avoidant Personality Disorder
-excessively sensitive to rejection
-fearful of humiliation or shame
-socially withdrawn
-wishes to be accepted by others but avoids opportunities based on anxiety
Schizophrenia
-psychosis or condition involving distorted perceptions of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life
-typical age of onset: 17-25
-Strong genetic component
-positive symptoms: presence of a distortion or bizarre behavioral symptom
-bizarre delusions (false belief)
-hallucinations (hearing bells or voices)
-heightened sensory awareness
-disorganized incoherent speech and behavior
Negative Symptoms (loss of functioning or ability; behavioral deficits)
-poverty of speech
-emotional flatness
-loss of motivation
-social withdrawal
-apathy
-impaired attention
Dissociative Disorders
-may develop in response to traumatic events
-Amnesia
-Dissociate Identity Disorder
Amnesia
-inability to remember important personal information; cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
-fugue state
-no concept of self/can take on a whole new identity/life
Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
-the appearance of 2 or more distinct identities within one person
-at least 2 recurrently take control over behavior
-inability to recall important information
-controversial in the field of psychology
-sybil
Biological Therapies
psychotropic medication
ritalin
paxil/xanax
prozac, zoloft, celexa
lithium
psychosurgery
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic Therapies
Humanistic or Client Based Therapies
Psychotropic Medication
-biological therapy
-alters the biochemistry of the brain
-ritalin for ADHD
-paxil/xanax for anxiety
-prozac, zoloft, celexa for depression
-Lithium for Bi-polar disorder
Psychosurgery
-biological therapy
-deep brain stimulation
-thin electrode surgically implanted so electrical currents can be delivered to the brain
-Lesion problematic areas of the brain to eliminate disruptive behaviors
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
-biological therapy
-shock therapy
-beneficial to those with severe depressions which are not responsive to medication
-can lead to memory impairment
-unclear why it works
Psychoanalysis
-biological therapy
-based on Freudian principles believing in the impact of early childhood
-uses free association: saying whatever comes to mind
-dream interpretation
-transference: develop relationship with therapist based on other people in one's life
-goal to uncover UCS conflicts to decrease anxiety/stress caused by guilt
Psychodynamic Therapies
-biological therapy
-looks at the unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms and symptom resolution in a broader manner than Freud
-more interaction and relationship based treatment
Humanistic or Client Centered Therapies
-biological therapy
-belief that people need to be supported and set the pace of their own therapy
-basic principles include
-unconditional positive regard
-help build self esteem and feelings of acceptance and genuineness and empathy
Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies
-systematic Desensitization
-virtual reality therapy
-aversion therapy
-flooding
Systematic Desensitization
-behavioral and cognitive therapy
-step by step process of eliminating a fear. uses counterconditioning: pair relaxation techniques with fear situation
Aversion Therapy
-behavioral and cognitive therapy
-substitutes punishment for the reinforcement of a bad habit
-antabuse for alcoholics
-shock for pedophiles
Flooding
-behavioral and cognitive therapy
-immersion into the feared situation/circumstance as an intervention to decrease the phobic/feared response
Cognitive Therapies
-help identify beliefs and expectations which maintain problems and conflicts
-challenges distortions in thinking
-identify faulty thinking and encourage realistic reappraisal with therapist support
-includes a variety of behavioral elements including modeling and rehearsal
Family/Couples Therapy
-cognitive therapy
-focus on the dynamics in the family as a system with different rules, roles and motivations
-treat each person as integral to the bigger system: "identified patient" is symptom bearer in the family
-change one part of the system and the whole system needs to adapt
Group Therapy
-cognitive therapy
-people with similar or different problems come together to provide support, strategies
-normalization a key component
-can aid in social skills, modeling of adaptive strategies and encourages empathy
-efficient use of resources
Psychotherapy Outcome Research
-various therapies see similar success rates though this is challenged statistically (regression to the mean)
--> placebo effect
-different beliefs that some therapies do better for some disorders (anxiety, phobias)
-a positive therapeutic relationship to the therapist can be vital
Social Psychology
-examines the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel and behave
---> you hated UGG boots at first, but now you're wearing them
Attitudes
-a positive or negative evaluative reaction towards a person, object or concept
Attitude Strength
-the durability or impact of an attitude
Durability
-if the attitude lasts over time
Impact
-if the attitude impacts behavior or thoughts
Initial Impressions
-these make a difference and have shown strong effects
---> Asch's study found that a person presented with positive traits first was found to be more sociable and happier
Social Influence
-the presence of others energizes performance (Triplett)
---> cyclists motivated by others to do better, race against the clock versus others
Social Norms
-shared expectations about thoughts, feelings and behavior
-can vary by time and place
-culturally sensitive
--> ex. manner of dress
Social Role
-a set of norms which characterize how people in specific social positions should behave
--> okay for police officer to frisk you but not a teacher
Role Conflict
-norms accompanying different roles may clash
--> being a good friend v. being a good student and studying
Conformity
-the adjustment of people's behavior, attitudes and beliefs to a group
Informational social influence
-follow the opinions of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing right
---> follow someone who is an eagle scout when you are lost
Normative Social Influence
-conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while trying to avoid rejection
---> everyone is more likely to do it so you should do it
Situation Influence on Behaviors
-see others engaging in a behavior, likely to be influenced by it
---> getting people to dance in a grocery store
Asch Conformity Study
-show subjects series of lines with different sizes and asks them to compare the lines, alone everyone picks the right answer, but in a group one person says the wrong answer and then everyone says the wrong answer
---> new study: people conformed at least once, only 20% remained completely independent in their responses
Factors affecting conformity
group size
presence of dissenter
Group size
-factor affecting conformity
-conformity increased from 5-35% as group size increased; after 5 this stabilized
Presence of Dissenter
-factor affecting conformity
-when someone else dissents he/she serves as a model and it significantly reduces conformity
---> if someone else picks the right answer also conformity went way down
LaPiere Study
-attitudes do not necessarily determine or predict our behavior
-LaPiere walked around with Asian person and was only denied access to one restaurant, but when he wrote to them they all said they would not have let them in
Attitudes and behavior are influenced by several factors
-attitudes influence behavior more strongly when the counteracting situational factors are weak
---> offering more money to take off clothes in 1800
-attitudes have a greater influence over our behaviors when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held
---> smoking or non-smoking table, but what if you have to wait an hour and a half?
-general attitudes predict general behaviors and specific attitudes predict specific behaviors
Persuasion
the deliberate effort to change or impact one's attitude
-source factors
-message factors
-channel factors
-receiver factors
Source Factor
-credibility, expertise, trustworthy, attractiveness
Message Factor
-fear appeal versus logic, one-sided v. two-sided argument, number of strong or weak arguments, repetition
Channel Factor
-in person, on television or radio, via audiotape, via computer
Receiver Factor
-personality, expectations, strength of preexisting attitudes, prior knowledge of the issues
Persuasion Tactics
norm of reciprocity
door in the face technique
foot in the door
low-balling
Norm of Reciprocity
the golden rule; to get you to comply with a request you are given an unsolicited favor or gift
-ex. free sample, you feel obligated to buy now
Door in the Face Technique
-persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject and then makes a smaller request believing you will be more likely to comply
---> start with something big, people will be okay with the smaller thing
Foot In the Door Technique
-a persuader gets you to comply with a small request and then presents a larger request thinking you will now be more likely to comply
---> will you sign the petition? donate money (someone who signs is more likely to donate)
Low-Balling Technique
-the persuader gets you to commit to an action then before you perform it the "cost increases"
---> will you take me to the airport? yes, okay its at 5 am
Obedience
-a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
Milgram's Obedience to Authority
results: variable which influenced obedience
-remoteness of the victim
-closeness and legitimacy of authority figure
-cog in the wheel: people just read the words without pressing the voltage and kept reading all the way up to 450 volts because they weren't directly giving the shocks
-personal characteristics: differences were weak or nonexistent
-cultural differences: similar results cross culturally
-ethical issues
Interesting Stats from Milgram exp.
-past 150 volts there is an 80% chance they will continue
-2/3 men administered the shock
-73% of women administered the higher shock
-hard to tell who will continue and who won't
-people who resisted early on, and those people felt directly responsible for that person
Out of Sight, but Not Out of Mind (Piaget)
-6 substages of development
-OBJECT PERMANENCE- the fact that when you can't see an object it isn't actually "not there" anymore
-youre only cognitively mature when you are able to understand you can not see an object but it can still be present
-sensorimotor
-preoperational
-concrete operations
-formal operations
How Moral Are You? (Kohlberg)
-presented boys of different ages with different moral dilemmas
-divided moral development into 6 stages
-as age increases, the level of moral understand increases, very few people are able to reach the 6th stage (Gahandi)
Discovering Love (Harlow)
-more important for the monkeys to be comforted physically with the cloth mother and would only use the wire mother for food when necessary
-all monkeys preferred the cloth monkey wen put in scary situation
-important: biological needs are not the only priority
In Control and Glad of It (Langer and Rodin)
-used a nursing home setting to see if giving the residents more responsibility would increase their happiness
-residents who were given the ability to mae their own decisions (given more responsibility) were happier and attended more events
-responsibility over your life makes you happier
Racing Against Your Heart (Friedman and Rosenman)
-compared the time it took for blood to clot in type A and B personalities
-type A were sick more often and had higher cholesterol
-complete type A's had much slower process of blood clotting than B which is bad for health
-direct correlation between personality and health
Life, Change, and Stress (Holmes and Rahe)
-made a list of life events, assigned point values of stress, and asked participants to fill out forms about how stressful their lives have been in the last year
-results: relationship between stess and illness is real but it is extremely complex and hard to measure
-determined most stressful life events: death of spouse, jail, marital separation, death of family member
Who is Crazy Here Anyway? (Rosenhan)
-8 participants were put in mental hospital that were not ill in any way
-tested to see if doctors could tell whether the patients were really sick or not
-other residents realized that the participants were not sick, but not the doctors
-patients didnt actually take the medication (overmedication)
-doctors had little to no interaction with the patient
You're Getting Defensive Again (Freud)
-discusses defense mechanisms discovered by Freud (id, ego, superego)
-repression- most common way, forces bad thoughts out of consciousness
-regression- person retreats to earlier behaviors that are less demanding/threatening
-projection- project your unconscious urges onto others and see it in their behaviors
-reaction formation- engage in behaviors opposite to your urges
-sublimation- find socially acceptable ways to let your anxiety/forbidden desires out
Relaxing Your Fears Away (Wolpe)
-used systematic desensitization to alleviate phobias in patients by using positive things
1) taught patients how to completely relax by tensing muscles and releasing them
2) made a list from least to most anxious situations
3) talked patients through these situations while they were relaxed to alleviate their phobias (most successful)
Choosing Your Psychotherapist (Smith and Glass)
-worked to decide if psychotherapy was effective
-conclusions
1) psychotherapy does work! - people who see therapy are better off with it than people who don't see it
2) there are negligible effects produced by there different types of therapy
3) people don't think that psychotherapy is effective because the info about it is spread too thin and across too many disciplines
-getting therapy is better than not getting it
-doesnt matter the treatment
-importance of your expectations for therapy and whether or not your therapist actually cares greatly affect how much the therapy helps
Obey at Any Cost (Milgram)
-65% of participants did give the most intense shock possible
-this shows that while the lab instructor really had no power over the participants, because he was the authority figure the participants obeyed him
The Power of Conformity (Asch)
-put one participant and 6 actors in a line and gave them all a card and asked them to verbalize what line was longest
-all 6 actors before the participant said the wrong answer about the line and 75% of the contestants said the wrong answer along with them
To Help or Not To Help (Darley and Latane)
-did a test and put people in groups of different numbers
-showed that the more people that are around, the less likely one is to jump in and help because of the diffusion of responsibility (the more people around, the else responsible you are for the problem at hand)
-diffusion of responsibility
-bystander effect