41 terms

Ch 29 Alterations in GI Function

Blood in vomit
Bright red blood in vomit
Blood from stomach/small int.
Dark Red blood in vomit; if dark brownish=ulcer
Blood in poooooop
From lower/rectum
Bright red blood in poop
Above Ileocecal Valve (where large and small int join)
Dark Red blood in poop
Diffculty swallowing relating to nerve; narrowing could be from Hiatal Hernia or brain tumor
Hiatal Hernia
Pouch in esophagus that goes into pathway and can collect food; as gets full you may have choking sensation or vomit after eating
Esophageal Diverticulum
Pouch in esophagus that collects food and needs surgery to remove
Esophageal Verices
bleeding in esophagus from acid in stomach going up it or too much alcohol
Gastroesophageal Reflex (GERD)
backward movement of GASTRIC contents (ACID) into esophagus; PYROSIS aka heartbur; caused by weak esophageal sphincter; may be caused by obesity; pain 30-60 mins after eating; MUCOSAL tissue injury; CANCER RISK: constant esoph burning causes DYSPLASI; complication of Barrett Esophagus (Genetic)
Cancer of the Esophagus
Males 2:1, older than 50; Squamos cell cancer (ETOH or smoking); ADENOCARCINOMA- Barretts Esophagus/Upper Stomach; Symptoms: Dysphagia, WEIGHT LOSS, fatigue, pain w/ swallowing; POOR PROGNOSIS b/c usually found late/lots of room to grow (long hollow tube) and can spread
Inflamm of Mucosa (lining); Acute or Chronic
Acute Gastritis
Transient inflammation of mucosal lining (very quick progression) 5 hours after consump of bactera, alcohol binge, caffeince, ASA; EX: food poisoning
Chronic Gastritis
Inflammation of mucosal lining w/ no erosions but ATROPHY of epithelial of stomach; from chronic use of alcohol, caffeine, smoking, NSAIDS
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
Ulcers caused by H Pylori: flagellar bacteria often found in wells; live in mucosa by secreting urease (ammonia) that buffers acidity; Symptoms: burning, more pain when empty stomach; food helps calm it
Curling Ulcers
Ulcers due to physiological stress such as burns, trauma, sepsis; in ICU; put MYLANTA into body
Cushing Ulcers
Stress ulcer arising in people w/ intracranial injury, operations, or tumors. (inc in ICP intracranial pressure is pushing against vagal nerve)
Stomach Cancer
Cancer caused by: Genetic, carcinogens, Gastritis, Gastric Polyps; Symptoms: Vague, Anorexia, weight loss (muscle wasting from Cachetin and TNF) indigestion, vomiting; LATE DIAGNOSES
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
(AKA SPastic Colon or Colitis);; Chronic alteration of Constipation then Diarrhea related to CHANGES IN STRESS HORMONES; Disorder of Small/Large Intestine that is chronic and recurrent; more frequent in stressed (constipated) and women (estrogen)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis; in young adults; familial; systemic symptoms: may have symptoms in rest of body (spine arthritis, optic inflammation, stomatitis) SYMPTOMS: diarrhea (more w/ ulcerative Colitis) Colicky Pain, weight loss, malaise(low feeling of discomfort), low fever
Crohn's Disease
Inflamm Bowel Disease associated w/ Fibrous Granulomatous inflamm response, less flexible tissue, doesnt allow for mobility, Sporadic, "skip", cobblestone pattern, NO bleeding, LACK OF ABSORPTION
Ulcerative Colitis
Inflamm Bowel Disease associated w/ BLOODY DIARRHEA; ulcers, continuous, inc. calcium (chronic cell changes; risk for cancer)
VIRAL Infectious Enterocolitis
AGGRESSIVE Infective Enterocolitis caused by Rotavirus(spread fecal-oral route; common in day care centers), Norwalk Virus, and Adenovirus; Eventually goes away, given IV fluid; dont want to stop both diarrhea and vomiting b/c then virus stays inside
C difficile Infectious Enterocolitis
Type of Infectious Enterocolitis from abnormal Antibiotic use; from a bacteria in your body/your NATURAL FLORA; Symptoms: Acutely ill, fever, lethargy, tachycard, abd pain, distension/bloating
E. Coli Infectious Enterocolitis
Type of Infectious Enterocolitis caused by bood-borne transmission (undercooked meat)
Diverticular Disease
Herniations of the Sigmoid Colon (Meckel's); not found in underdeveloped countries; from lack of fiber and lack of exercise (causes stasis) DIVERTICULITIS: inflammation in LLQ; may resolve; need antibiotics, NPO (nothing per oral) or surgery
Obstruction in the RLQ when appendix becomes inflammed, swollen, gangrenous; WHEN POOP GETS STUCK THERE=Stasis so inflames and causes pain; fast progression
Large Volume Diarrhea
inc. water, painless, no blood
Small Volume Diarrhea
painful, bleeding
Primary causes of constipation
lack of water and exercise
secondary causes of constipation
pregnant or neuro problem
Inflammation of membrane that covers organs.
BACTERIAL: Bowel muscle is Perforated (ex: appendicitis);
CHEMICAL: Surgical irritant to membrane nerves. TREAT: NPO and IV
Twisting of bowel muscle causing intestinal obstruction
shortening of the bowel muscle caused by movement of one segment of the bowel into another (less than 2 yrs old)
Paralytic Peritonitis
Muscular impairment of peristalsis from chemical irritation after abd surgery
Malabsorption Syndrome
Caused by Celiac Sprue, Crohn's, Surgical Resections so shorter small int. so less absorption; If FAT not absorbed= Clay/yellow poop; also, fat soluble vitamin deficiency=Bleeding (vitamins A,D,K)
Celiac Sprue
Autoimmune Malabsorption disease triggered by eating GLUTEN; damages lining of small int.
Polyp Neoplasm
Neoplasm/mass that protrudes INTO gut lumen (hernia protrudes OUT)
Adenomatous Polyp
Polyp that is benign at beginning but cancer rish increases with age
Colorectal Neoplasm
Neoplasm thats SLOW growing and PREVENTABLE (constipation=more prone); 2nd Cancer Death in US (decreasing) #1 SYMPTOM: painless bleeding; Familial, concurrent bowel disease, high fat diet, low fiber, inactive, low free radical scavengers