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23 terms

Chapter 17: Plants and Fungi

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Mycorrhizae
Mutalistic, symbiotic relationship
How does the plant benefit in mycorrhizae? The fungus?
Fungus absorbs water and minerals.
Plant makes sugars through photosynthesis
Most fungi consist of a mass of threadlike...
hyphae
Mycelium
Mass of hyphae
What are hyphal cells separated by?
Cross walls with pores big enough for ribosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei
What does multinucleate?
They lack cross walls
Why do some hyphae have a huge surface area?
To absorb food
What are fungal cell walls made of?
Chitin
What does reproduction, sexual or asexual, involve?
Haploid spores
Example of asexual spores
molds, yeasts
Explain sexual spores
2 haploid spore come together from 2 different parents
How to hyphae reproduce asexually?
They form spores in sporangia at their tips
When food is depleted...
the fungus reproduces sexually
What percent of plant diseases are caused by fungi?
80%
Only 50 species of fungi are parasitic on animals, causing what?
Mycosis- fungal disease
Human infections include:
ringworm, yeast infection, athlete's foot
Systemic mycoses
Fungai infections that spread throughout the body, usually from inhaled spores
What do lichens consist of?
Associations of green algae held in fungai hyphae within a fungal network
Many lichen associations are...
mutalistic
How does fungus benefit from lichen associations? Algae?
Fungus gets food from it's photosynthetic partner
Algae retains water and minerals
How are lichens important to pioneers on new land?
They are rugged and able to live where there is little or no soil. They help form soil; often live on rocks
How do several species of ants and termites cultivate fungal gardens?
They collect leaves and fungi feed on the leaves and the fungi breakdown the cellulose that ants can't breakdown. The ants eat the swollen tips of hyphae. Insects feed fungi with leaves
What practical uses for fungi have for humans?
Yeast for alcohol and bread
Antibiotics
Edible mushrooms
Flavor cheeses
Truffles
Break down toxic pollutants
Clean oil spills