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the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond; more electronegative an atom, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself
polar covalent bond
bon where one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons are not shared equally
cations and anions attract each other; bond where two atoms are so unequal in their attraction for valence electrons that the more electronegative atom strips an electron completely away from its partner.
bond that forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
van de Waals interactions
weak bonds that occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together
linkage that makes water more structured than other liquids; holds substance together; related to adhesion and surface tension
moderation of temperature
water absorbs heat from warm air and releases air that is cooler; heated water equates to the increase in molecules' speed; water has HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT
insulation of bodies of water
in floating ice water is less dense as a solid; hydrogen gains four partners; water expands
acid not only adds hydrogen ions to solution but removes hydroxide ions
• 1 = battery acid (more acidic), 14 oven cleaner (less acidic)
• More hydrogen ions = more acidic
• More basic/more hydroxide ions = less acidic
• Each pH unit is a 10 fold difference
• Buffers - minimize changes in the concentrations
tested whether complex organic molecules arise spontaneously = abiotic synthesis of organic compounds could have been an early stage in origin of life
6 electrons; Acts as intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in as many as four directions: 4 or more atoms = tetrahedral shape, 2 atoms always a double bond; frequent partners oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen
carbon + hydrogen; attached to carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available for covalent bonding
long hydrocarbon tails that attach to non hydrocarbon component; CAN UNDERGO REACTIONS THAT RELEASE ENERGY!!
Compounds that have same # of atoms of the same elements but different structures and properties; can be structural, geometric
isomers that are mirror images of each other
• Arranged in different ways that mirror
• Right and left hand versions
• one is active, one is inactive
two molecules are covalently bonded through LOSS of WATER MOLECULE; also known as a dehydration reaction facilitated by enzymes
polymers are disassembled to monomers, reversal of dehydration reaction and is more extensive
o Bonds are broken down by addition of water
serve as fuel; include sugars and polymers of sugars; simplest are monosaccharides, then disaccharides and polysaccharides
some multiple unit of CH20
o Glucose with multiple hydroxyl groups and a carbonyl group
• Can be aldose or ketose
o Arrangement of parts around asymmetric carbons
o Major nutrient
polysaccharide that is extensively branched and is stored in liver and muscle; hydrolysis releases glucose for use but is easily depleted
mix poorly with water; mostly hydrocarbon regions, include waxes and pigments as well as fats, phospholipids, and steroids
• Constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
• Fatty acid has a long carbon skeleton 16-18 in length, non polar C-H bonds in chains
• THREE FATTY ACID MOLECULES join glycerol to make an ester linkage
o Also known as TRIACYLGLYCEROL
saturated fatty acid
no double bonds between carbon atoms composing the chain
o lack double bonds
o found in animal fat
unsaturated fatty acid
one on more double bonds; formed by removal of hydrogen atoms in the skeleton
o found in Fish, plant
• THEY ARE essential because they make up the CELL MEMBRANE
• Two fatty acids attached to a glycerol rather than three
• NEGATIVE CHARGE
composed of chains of amino acids (one or more polypeptides; folded into a three dimensional structure)
• Speed up chemical reacts, or play a role in structural support
• Enzymatic proteins regulate metabolism
o Catalysts = chemical agents that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by reaction
three dimensional arrangement of a protein's segments of coils and folds folded in patterns as a result of hydrogen bonds;
o Overall shape of polypeptide from interactions with side chains of amino acids.
o Hydrophobic interaction = side chains end up in clusters at core
o Van der Waals reactions keep it in shape
o Disulfide bridges
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