Educational Psychology Vocabulary
Terms in this set (267)
the study of learning and teaching.
the study of teaching and learning with applications to the instructional process. Also called instruction.
doing this for a purpose; teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve.
the degree to which teachers feel that their own efforts determine the success of their students.
Evaluation of conclusions through logical and systematic examination of the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
Explanation of the relationship between factors, such as the effects of alternative grading systems on student motivation.
A set of principles that explains and relates certain phenomena.
principles that have been thoroughly tested and found to apply in a wide variety of situations.
research + common sense
A special program that is the subject of an experiment.
Something that can have more than one value, in a experiment researchers try to limit these to only that being tested.
procedure used to test the effect of a treatment. Researchers can create special treatments and analyze their effects.
Selection by chance into different treatment groups; intended to ensure equivalence of the groups.
Experiments in which researchers create a highly artificial, structured setting that exists for a brief period of time. Researchers can exert a very high degree of control over all the factors involved in the study.
The degree to which an experiment's results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors.
randomized field experiment
Experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs.
group that receives the treatment during an experiment.
group that receives no special treatment during an experiment.
Degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to a real-life situations.
experiment that studies a treatment's effect on one person or one group by contrasting behavior before, during, or after application of the treatment.
research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur.
relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to high levels of another.
relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to low levels of another.
variables for which there is no relationship between high/low levels of one and high/low levels of the other.
research study aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about something of interest.
research carried out by educators in their own classrooms or schools.
orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime.
continuous theories of development
theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood.
discontinuous theories of development
theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors.
major stage theorists
Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson, and Kohlberg
Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
mental patterns that guide behavior (Piaget)
the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation. (Piaget)
understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes. (Piaget)
modifying existing schemes to fit new situations. (Piaget)
the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences. According to Piaget learning depends on this process.
view of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality. (Piaget's theory of development)
Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills. (Piaget: birth to 2 years)
inborn, automatic responses to stimuli (e.g. eye blinking in response to bright light).
the fact that an object exists even if it is out of sight.
Stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind. (Piaget: ages 2-7)
the concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length).
paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation.
the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point.
believing that everyone views the world as you do.
concrete operational stage
stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations. (Piaget: ages 7 to 11)
the meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.
a skill learning during the concrete operational stage (Piaget) of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects.
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage (Piaget) of cognitive development in which individuals can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among its subordinate classes.
formal operational stage
Stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically. (Piaget: ages 11 to adulthood)
developmentally appropriate education
instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather than to their age alone).
symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate and solve problems
the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others
children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as inner speech.
zone of proximal development
Level of development immediately above a person's present level. (Vygotsky believed that this was where real learning took place)
support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
a set of principles that relates to social environment to psychological development (Erikson is viewed this way)
According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages.
In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads to automatic punishment.
In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
In Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values or right and wrong.
preconventional level of morality
Stages 1 and 2 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgements in their own interests.
conventional level of morality
Stages 3 & 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgements in consideration of others.
postconventional level of morality
Stages 5 & 6 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in realtion to abstract principles.
small muscle development
development of dexterity of the fine muscles of the hand. (early childhood)
large muscle development
development of motor skills such as running or throwing, which involve the limbs and large muscles. (early childhood)
knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.
actions that show respect and caring for others.
play that occurs alone.
Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing.
play in which children join together to create a common goal.
instruction in the background skills and knowledge that prepare children for formal teaching later.
compensatory preschool programs
programs that are designed to prepare disadvantaged children for entry into kindergarten and first grade.
early intervention program
compensatory preschool programs that target very young children at the greatest risk of school failure.
a person's perception of his or her own strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values.
the value of each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.
the process of comparing oneself to other to gather information and to evaluate and judge one's abilities, attitudes, and conduct.
the tendency to analyze oneself and one's own thoughts
an adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, not his or her own (Marcia)
inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self (Marcia)
experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment. (Marcia)
a state of consolidation reflecting conscious, clear-cut decisions concerning occupation and ideology. (Marcia)
trust vs. mistrust
the goal of infancy is to develop a basic trust in the world. Birth to 18 months (Erikson)
autonomy vs. doubt
children at this stage have the dual desire to hold on and to let go. Overly restrictive and harsh parents can give children a sense of powerlessness and doubt in their abilities. 18 months to 3 years (Erikson)
initiative vs. guilt
during this period children's continually maturing motor and language skills permit them to be increasingly aggressive and vigorous in the explorations of bot their social and their physical environment. 3 to 6 years (Erikson)
industry vs. inferiority
success bring with it a sense of industry, a good feeling about oneself and one's abilities. 6 to 12 years (Erikson)
identity vs. role confusion
12 to 18 years (Erikson) "Who am I?" is the big question
intimacy vs. isolation
Young adulthood (Erikson) Learning how to share their life with another.
generativity vs self-absorption
middle adulthood (Erikson). the interest in establishing and guiding the next generation.
integrity vs. despiar
late adulthood (Erikson). people look back over their lifetime and come to the realization that one's life has been one's own responsibility. Despair occurs in those who regret the way they have led their lives.
instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language
students are taught primarily or entirely in English
transitional bilingual education
children are taught reading or other subjects in their native language for a few years and then transitioned to English
paired bilingual education
children are taught reading or other subjects in both their native language and English
two-way bilingual education
dual language models teach all students in both English and another language.
teachers' use of examples, data, and other information from a variety of cultures.
helping students understand how the knowledge we take in is influence by our origins and points of view.
a critical goal of multicultural education; involves development of positive relationships and tolerant attitudes among students of different backgrounds.
teaching techniques that facilitate the academic success of students from different ethnic and social class groups.
socially approved behavior associated with one gender as opposed to the other.
general aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
an intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
a person's eight separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. (Garner)
interaction of individual differences in learning with particular teaching methods.
behavioral learning theories
explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
cognitive learning theories
explanations of learning that focus on mental processes
a change in an individual that results from experience.
environmental conditions that activate the senses
a stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response
stimuli that have no effect on a particular response.
a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response. (Pavlov)
the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior. (Skinner)
an apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments in operant conditioning.
pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors.
a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior.
food, water, and other consequence that satisfies a basic need.
a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer.
rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities
unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior.
an aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again.
withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur.
teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal.
the weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn.
the increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction.
schedule of reinforcement
the frequency and predictability of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors.
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors.
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time.
reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time.
continuation (of behavior)
events that precede behaviors
signals as to what behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished. (also know as antecedent stimuli)
perception of and response to different stimuli
carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another.
social learning theory
learning theory that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action. developed by Bandura
imitation of others' behavior. (Bandura)
Bandura states it has four phases:
1. attentional phase-paying attention to a model
2. retention phase-students watch the model and then practice.
3. reproduction phase- try to match their behavior to the model's
4. motivational phase- student will continue behavior if it is reinforced.
learning based on the observation of the consequences of others' behavior.
rewarding or punishing one's own behavior.
cognitive behavior modification
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction. (Meichenbaum)
cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind.
component of the memory system in which information is received and held for very short periods of time.
a person's interpretation of stimuli
active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others
short-term/ working memory
the component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds.
mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention
working memory capacity
5 to 9 pieces of information
the components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time.
a part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experiences
a parts of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge
a part of long-term memory that stores information about how to do things
important events that a fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory.
mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information
explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amount of mental processing it receives.
dual code theory of memory
theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways.
inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory.
decreased ability to recall previously learning information, caused by learning of new information.
decreased ability to learn new information, caused by interference from existing knowledge
increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information.
increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information.
the tendency for items at the beginning of a list to be recalled more easily that other items.
the tendency for items at the end of a list to be recalled more easily than other items.
a level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort.
technique in which fact or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time.
technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time.
learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks.
learning of words (or facts expressed in words).
learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled.
memorization of a series of items in a particular order.
learning of a list of items in any order.
mental visualization of images to improve memory
devices or strategies for aiding the memory
a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items.
a strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations
a strategy for memorization in which images are used to link list of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers.
strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase.
memorization of facts or association that might be essentially arbitrary
mental processing of new informations that relates to previously learned knowledge.
learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications.
theory stating that information is stored in long-term memory in schemata (networks of connected facts and concepts), which provide a structure for making sense of new information.
knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn ("thinking about thinking")
methods for learning, studying, or solving problems.
learning strategies that call on students to ask themselves who, what, where, and how questions as they read materials.
a study strategy that requires decisions about what to write.
writing brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read
representing the main points of material in a hierarchical format.
diagramming main ideas and the connections between them
a study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material.
activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation
images, concepts, or narratives that compare new information to information students already understand.
the process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind.
approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits information directly to the students; lessons are goal oriented and structured by the teacher.
parts of a direct instruction lesson
state learning objectives and orient students to the lesson.
present new material
conduct learning probes
provide independent practice
assess performance and provide feedback
provide distributed practice and review
students' attitude of readiness to begin a lesson
pattern of teaching concepts by presenting a rule or definition, giving examples, and then showing how examples illustrate the rule
use of direct, simple, and well-organized language to present concepts.
teacher works out an example of a problem on the board...modeling their thought process.
demonstrations, models, and illustrations
student seeing and when appropriate having hands-on experience with concepts and skills.
a method, such as questioning, that helps teachers find out whether students understand a lesson.
length of time that a teacher waits for a student to answer a question
the order in which students are called on by the teacher to answer questions during the course of a lesson.
responses to questions made by an entire class in unison
component of instruction in which students work by themselves to demonstrate and rehearse new knowledge.
work that students are assigned to do independently during class.
effective use of independent practice time
do not assign independent practice until you are sure students can do it.
keep independent practice assignments short
give clear instructions
get students started and then avoid interruptions
monitor independent work
collects independent work and include it in their grades
research approach in which the teaching practices of effective teachers are recorded through classroom observation
an abstract idea that is generalized from specific examples
transfer of learning
the application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new situations.
constructivist theories of learning
theories that state that learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work. (student-centered instruction)
process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, with an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover (with the teacher's guidance) the basic skills required.
basic skills are gradually build into more complex skills.
strategy where students more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems (constructivist supported learning)
students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves
students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them
assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.
a small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension
a study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
problem-solving technique that encourages indentifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.
a thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities.
a model of effective instruction that focuses on elements teachers can directly control: quality, appropriateness, incentive, and time.
between-class ability grouping
the practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level
within-class ability grouping
a system of accommodating student differences by diving a class of students into two or more ability groups for instruction in certain subject areas.
a focus on having students in mixed-ability groups and holding them to high standards but providing many ways for students to reach those standards
a method of ability grouping in which students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels
a regrouping method in which students are grouped across grade lines for reading instruction
programs, generally at the primary level, that combine children of different ages in the same class. Also called cross-age grouping programs.
instruction tailored to particular students' needs, in which each student works at her or his own level and rate.
programs designed to prevent or remediate learning problems among students from lower socioeconomic status communities.
an internal process that activates, guides and maintains behavior over time.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
identifies two main types of needs: deficiency needs and growth needs. People are motivated to satisfy needs at the bottom of the hierarchy before seeking to satisfy those at the top. (deficiency needs bottom to top: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs) (growth needs bottom to top: need to know and understand, aesthetic needs, self-actualization needs)
basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being as identified by Maslow
needs for knowing, appreciating, and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met as identified by Maslow
a person's ability to develop his or her full potential
a theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures.
locus of control
a personality trait that determines whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure or success to internal or external factors
internal locus of control (self-efficacy)
one who believes that success or failure is the result of his or her own efforts or abilities
external locus of control
one who believes that other factors, such as luck, task difficulty, and other people's actions, cause success or failure
a theory of motivation based on the belief that people's efforts to achieve depend on their expectations of reward
a theory that relates the probability and the incentive value of success to motivation
the desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success depends on personal effort and abilities
the goals of students who are motivated primarily by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvement. Also called mastery goals
the goals of students who are motivated primarily by a desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades.
the expectation, based on experience, that one's actions will ultimately lead to failure.
communicating positive expectations
wait for students to respond, avoid unnecessary achievement distinctions among students, and treat all students equally.
strategies to enhance intrinsic motivation
arousing interest, maintaining curiosity, interesting presentation modes, and helping students set their own goals
principles for providing extrinsic incentives
expressing clear expectations, providing clear feedback, providing immediate feedback, providing frequent feedback, increasing the value and availability of extrinsic motivators
Kounin, the degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to student behavior at all times
teacher's ability to attend to interruptions or behavior problems while continuing a lesson or other instructional activity.
situation in which students appear to be on-task but are not engaged in learning.
method of giving clear, firm, unhostile response to student misbehavior (Canter and Canter)...uses broken record
applied behavior analysis
application of behavioral learning principles to understanding and changing behavior (what is the target behavior and the reinforcer)
class rewards that depend on the behavior of ALL students
home-based reinforcement strategies
behavior modification strategies in which a student's school behavior is reported to parents, who supply rewards.
Simple to complex: knowledge (recall), comprehension (translating, interpreting, or extrapolating), application (using principles or abstractions to solve novel or real-life problems), analysis (breaking down complex information or ideas into simpler parts to understand how they relate), synthesis (creation of something that did not exist before), evaluation (judging something against a given standard) .
a chart that classifies lesson objectives according to cognitive level.
objectives that have to do with student attitudes and values.
designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed
final evaluations of students' achievement of an objective
assessments that compare the performance of one students against the performance of others
assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge
values computed from raw scores that relate students' performances to those of a norming group
measure of the match between the content of a test and the content of the instruction that preceded it.
a type of evidence of validity that exists when scores on a test are related to scores from another measure of an associated trait