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De Gama

Portuguese navigator who was the 1st European to sail from Europe to Asia


Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztec in 1521 -Founded Mexico City


French explorer who reached the mouth of the Mississipi River -Claimed the Mississippi River valley for France

Henry Hudson

English explorer who searched for a Northwest Passage


English explorer, historian & soldier who started two unsuccessful colonies at Roanoke Island


A town in SE Virginia -1st permanent English settlement in North America- founded in 1607


A town in SE Massachusetts- founded by the Pilgrims in 1620

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1st settlement of the Puritans- Boston

New Amsterdam

Dutch colony taken over by the English -became New York

John Smith

English army captain who strict discipline helped the Jamestown settlement to survive

John Rolfe

Jamestown leader whose method of curing tobacco made it successful cash crop -married Pocahantas


seeking religious freedom-settled Massachusetts

Roger Williams

Puritan minister who founded the colony of Rhode Island

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan founder of the Portsmouth, Rhode Island

Lord Baltimore

Started a Catholics colony- called Maryland


Society of Friends-started by George Fox -very plain & against slavery

William Penn

Quaker leader who founded the colony of Pensylvainia in 1681

James Oglegthorpe

British Military officer who founded the colony of Georgia 1732

Peter Stuyvesant

lost New Netherland to the English without firing a shot-became New York

Stamp Act

1765 one of the first British laws placing taxes on the colonies

Boston Massacre

British soldiers killed 5 colonies

Boston Tea Party

1773 -Colonist dressed as Native Americans & dumped English tea into the Boston Harbor

Intolerable Acts

1774 followed the Boston Tea Party- English parliament closed sea port -ordered colonists to feed & house British soldiers in the colonies

Battles of Lexington & Concord

Site of one of the first battles of the American Revolution

Battle of Saratoga

Site in northeastern New York of an important Patriot victory in the Revolutionary War

Battle of Yorktown

The last major battle of the American Revolution

Samuel Adams

Patriot & leader in the American Revolution. Member of the Sons of Liberty -wrote news articles for the Boston newspaper attacking the Stamp Act

George Washington

1st President of the United States- fought in the French & Indian War- led the Continental Army during the American revolution

Thomas Paine

Wrote Common Sense (written in a language most people could understand- urged colonists to separate from Britian)

Thomas Jefferson

3rd president - Author of the Declaration of Indepenence

Marquis de Lafayette

French general who joined the Continental Army during the American Revolution

King George III

King of England during the American Revolution

Lord Cornwallis

British general who surrounded at Yorktown- THE LAST MAJOR BATTLE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION IN 1781

Reasons people came to the Americas

economic opportunity, slavery, religious freedom, military adventure & release from prison

Basic ideals expressed in & the reason for writing the Declaration of Independence

All men created equal & life, liberty & pursuit of happiness

Bill of Rights

First Ten Amendments 1791

Amendment 1 - Martin Luther King giving a speech

Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly & petition

Amendment 2- bare arms

right to keep weapons

Amendment 3- soldiers at your door asking to come inside

protection against quartering & housing soldiers

Amendment 4- police men at your door wanting to search your home without a warrant

freedom from unreasonable search & seizure

Amendment 5- plead the fifth- person with an X over their mouth

rights of accused people of a crime

Amendment 6- speedy cars

right to a speedy trial

Amendment 7- seven + five = 12 people in a jury

cases involving controversy over $20 gives you the right to a trial by jury

Amendment 8- handcuffs or colonial stocks

no cruel or unusual punishment

Amendment 9- is always the floor. Picture a large # 9 on the floor & all your rights are inside the circle part of the 9. More rights than specified in the Constitution

whether you step outside the circle or stay in the circle you still have rights. You have more rights that are not listed in the Constitution.

Amendment 10- always look at the ceiling. Look at the ceiling & picture the United States. Then find Oklahoma

This will remind you that you have state rights & national rights.

Amendment 13

slavery outlawed 1865

Amendment 15

voting rights 1870 (black suffrage)

Amendment 19

women's right to vote 1920

Amendment 26

vote for eighteen yr olds 1971

Branches of Government

1) Legislative 2) Executive 3) Judicial Branch

Legislative Branch

create bills (laws) - override executive branch veto (by 2/3 of the members of both houses of congress agree) Approves the making of money -declare war

House of Representatives

based on the population of each state (Virginia Plan) 2 yr term


2 reps from each of the 50 states (New Jersey Plan) 6 year term

Executive Branch

Carries out the laws - Approve /Vetos the bills created by Congress - nominates judges- allowed to order the army into battle


national level -4 yr term (22nd Amendment limits President to 2 terms


state level

Judicial Branch

Rules whether laws passed are constitutional -can rule whether actions of the executive branch are constitutional

Supreme Court

9 members

Before state can vote on an amendment

must be approved by 2/3 of both the Senate & House of Representatives. or 2/3 of the states can request that Congress call a special convention. Then, 3/4 of ALL states must ratify (approve) an amendment before it becomes part of the constitution. Since the Bill of rights was added in 1791, some 10,000 amendments to the Constitution have been proposed. Only 17 have been added.

Christopher Columbus

searched for a sea route to asia sailing west, found the carribbean islands

Ponce De Leon

Explored parts of Florida, Gets credit for finding & naming Florida (La Florida)

Magellan, Ferdinand

1st person to sail around the world

Coronado, Francisco

Looked for the Seven Cities Gold, but explored Southwestern US

Sons of Liberty

Sam Adams helped formed this group of men who supported the Patriot cause & boycotted the British

Mercy Otis Warren

Massachusetts colonist who wrote poems & plays supporting the Patriots


Hired German Soldiers

Paul Revere

Colonist who warned Patriots that the British were marching to Lexington & Concord

French & Indian War

War fought between the French & British over the Ohio River Valley, a cause to the Revolutionary War

Louisiana Purchase

A region of land that doubled the size of the US when purchased from France, it extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains & from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada

Lewis & Clark

American Explorers order by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase

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