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What is true of both mitochondria and chloroplasts?

They include compartments where hydrogen ions are concentrated.

The tertiary structure and function of the polypeptide is principally determined by...

interactions between amino acids present in the polypeptide.

In a species that has 5 different alleles for a gene at a particular locus, how many different alleles may be present in the somatic cells of one diploid individual?


If red blood cells cultured in an isotonic medium are placed in distilled water, they will most likely...

swell and lyse

The best evidence that the giant panda is more closely related to bears than is the raccoonlike lesser panda involves...

DNA sequence comparisons

Which of the following structures contains highly oxygenated blood?

pulmonary vein

Metabolism of which of the following molecules results in the greatest net usable energy per gram?

a triglyceride

Cells that make up salivary glands would be expected to contain a relatively large amount of...

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following characteristics distinguishes prokaryotic organisms from eukaryotic organisms?

Prokaryotes are structurally less complex than eukaryotes are.

An important role of soil microbes in biological systems is the...

recycling of matter

Which of the following diseases is caused by the lack of a functional gene responsible for a specific enzyme?

Tay-Sachs disease

How many different genotypes are possible from the cross shown above?


Which of the following sequences best represents the life cycle of a typical angiosperm?

sporophyte, meiosis, gametophyte, gametes, fertilization, zygote, sporophyte

Birds associating the bright colors of certain butterflies with an unpleasant taste is an example of...

trial and error learning

Which of the following best describes allosteric inhibition of an enzyme?

the inhibitor binds to the enzyme but not at its active site

Which of the following organelles is correctly matched with its function?

lysosome...lipid hydrolysis

The occurrence of a particular genetic condition in a family is shown in the pedigree above. Which of the following is the most likely inheritance pattern for the individuals with the condition> Squares represent males, circles represent females, and shaded symbols represent individuals who exhibit the condition.

autosomal dominant

Rates of adaptive radiation typically are at their highest in which of the following situations?

When new niches become available

Which of the following led to the increased function of the invertebrate nervous system?

Cephalization of the major sensory organs and the cerebrum

Which of the following is the most direct result of the heating up of pond water during the summer?

the water's ability to hold oxygen decreases.

A protein is synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane. Which of the following summarizes the protein's pathway in the cell?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, vesicle, plasma membrane

In most dicot seeds, which of the following structures is responsible for the storage of carbohydrates?


In mammals, which of the following substances is produced in a muscle that operates anaerobically?


What immune system cell is most severely depleted by HIV/AIDS?

helper T cells

The primary producers of the deep sea communities associated with hot water vents are...

chemoautotrophic bacteria

A scientist studying the oxygen concentration in sealed chambers containing cultured plant cells finds that when the chambers are illuminated, the concentration of oxygen decreases. Why does the oxygen concentration decrease when the chamber is kept in the dark?

Plant cell mitochondria consume oxygen by aerobic respiration.

The unequal division of the cytoplasm among frog embryo cells during early cleavage, as shown in the diagram, results from...

uneven distribution of yolk

Production of ATP occurs in al of the following processes EXCEPT

light - independent reactions of photosynthesis

Which of the following statements most correctly represents the organization of living systems from the smallest to largest?

Atoms, molecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems

The functional similarity of the mandibles (hinged jaws) of insects and those of mammals is an example of...


Which of the following pairs of plants are most closely related?

Kidney bean and scarlet runner bean

Milk kept past the expiration date often spoils, tastes sour, and develops stringy curds. This can be explained by what?

Bacteria produce lactic acid, which lowers the pH and denatures the milk proteins.

A research study sampled populations of field mice annually over the course of 50 years. The population was categorized by coat color. What type of selection is represented?

stabilizing selection

What occurs in both fermentation and aerobic cellular respiration?

ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

What best summarizes the theory of punctuated equilibrium?

Most taxa experience relatively short periods during which they undergo rapid change, followed by relatively long periods during which they undergo relatively little change.

What organism possesses both a system of blood vessels and a digestive tract in which food travels in only one direction?

An intake system is compromised of a series of tubes.

What occurs in the immediate fight or flight response to danger or fear?

An increase in glucose catabolism

During the fall, a chipmunk experiences a sustained period of cold weather. The chipmunk's thyroid gland responds by secreting a greater quantity of thyroxin. Which of the following represents the most accurate pathway from the central nervous system to the target cells?

CNS, hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, thyroid, thyroxin, target cells

What ion is significantly involved in the opening and closing of the stomata?


What best explains why many different species can live together within an ecosystem with limited resources?

each species occupies a different niche

What occurs in response to a rise in the blood sugar level?

Beta cells in the pancreas release insulin.

In evolutionary terms, what organism is the most successful?

The one that leaves the greatest number of offspring that survive to reproduce.

What statement about the process of excretion in animals is correct?

Animals with closed circulatory systems usually have capillary beds associated with their excretory organs.

What is true of a specialized companion cell of the phloem that is connected to the palisade mesophyll cell by plasmodesmata?

Materials synthesized in photosynthesis could be sent from the mesophyll cell to the companion cell.

The flow of which of the following into the mitochondrial matrix provides the chemiosmotic energy for the synthesis of ATP?


Fire has what effect on the community?

It recycles dead plant material, thus nutrients become available.

As plants evolved from simple to more complex forms, which of the following occurred?

The sporophyte generation became more dominant than the gametophyte generation.

If a population is at Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following can be predicted for the recessive alleles in the population?

They will be maintained at the same frequency.

A large assemblage of land snails is subdivided into two populations ( A and B) by a river that effectively isolates the two populations for an indefinitely long period. From an evolutionary standpoint, what is LEAST likely to occur in the two populations?

Populations A may undergo instantaneous speciation by the doubling of its chromosome numbers (polyploidy).

What is TRUE of C4 plants such as corn?

The calvin cycle is confined to the bundle sheath cells.

What causes the rapid change of membrane polarity during an action potential?

Diffusion of positively charged ions across the cell membrane.

Structure that stores lipid - emulsifying salts

gall bladder

Structure where pepsin hydrolyses proteins


Structure that produces most of the hydrolytic enzymes that are active in the small intestine.


Structure where glycogen typically occurs in large quantities as a storage product.


Molecule contains a porphyrin ring with a central magnesium atom.


Causes plants shoots to bend toward light by stimulating cell elongation.


Regulates flowering in plants that are sensitive to the length of the photoperiod.


Molecule that can absorb photons of light and release electrons to the primary electron acceptor.


Protein synthesis termination triplet

nonsense codon

Site of protein synthesis


Base sequence on messenger RNA that aids its transport across the nuclear envelope

extra - chromosomal circular DNA

triplet on tRNA


typical of prokaryotic cells after fission

circular chromosomes

eukaryotic cells at prophase of mitosis

unpaired replicated linear chromosomes

eukaryotic cells at metaphase 1

paired replicated linear chromosomes

plasmid exchanged by conjugating bacteria

extra - chromosomal circular DNA

After 10 days, the distilled water culture dish has approximately how many duckweed plants?


In pond water, the duckweed population grows at an average rate of...

1 plant per 3 days

Neurotransmitters characterized as inhibitory would NOT be expected to

open Na+ channels

Neurotransmitters are released from presynaptic axon terminals into the synaptic cleft by


A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver O2 to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart?


If a physician hears two "lub" sounds instead of one, then what is true?

the atrioventricular valves are not closing at the same time

The control over milk production, water balance, and labor in childbirth is mediated by the

posterior pituitary

The spaces that separate adjacent Schwann cells


If a molecule of CO2 is released into the blood in your left toe out of your nose, it must pass all structures EXCEPT

pulmonary vein

leads to, through, and from the lungs

pulmonary circuit

Activity associated with parasympathetic division of the nervous system


coordinates muscle actions


Only endocrine gland whose secretary function is under direct control of sympathetic nerves

adrenal medulla

What would be most affected if an accident caused trauma to the hypothalamus

regulation of body temperature

during stress ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla

the adrenal gland

exhalation of air from the human lungs

volume of thoracic cavity decreases

stimulates and maintains metabolic processes


hormone that prepares and maintains the uterine lining for pregnancy

estrogen and progesterone

If the concentration of potassium in the cytoplasm of a nerve cell with a resting membrane potential of -70 mV were elevated above normal, the new resting potential would

-69mV or higher

what type of tissue is blood


organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have...

a closed circulatory system

hormones are distributed throughout the body by

blood system

What is associated with the evolution of the nervous system

bilateral symmetry

air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing lung volume

controls the shape of the eye lens to allow focusing

the ciliary muscle

which system is involved with heat production

muscular system

the hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by

releasing hormones

the blood level most important in controlling human respiration rate


the release of cyclic AMP as a second messenger is a response to

glycoprotein and peptide hormones

after an action potential, the resting potential is restored by

the opening of voltage sensitive potassium channels and closing of the sodium activation gates

part of the brain that controls basic responses necessary to maintain life processes

medulla oblongata

the following states of fertilization and early development

acrosomal reaction, plasma membrane, depolarization, cortical reaction, fusion of egg and sperm nuclei complete, onset of new DNA synthesis, first cell division

cortical reaction

The changing of the vitelline membrane into a hard fertilization envelope that further resists the entry of other sperm.

acrosomal reaction

The discharge of hydrolytic enzymes from the acrosome, a vesicle in the tip of a sperm, when the sperm approaches or contacts an egg.

most enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules in food occurs in the

small intestine

both the eye and the respiratory tract are protected against infections by

secretion of lysozome onto their surface

what process of osmoregulation by the kidney is LEAST selective


these cells are involved in innate immunity, and a person lacking these might have a higher chance of getting a malignant tumor

natural killer cells

the filtrate removed from the blood by the kidneys might contain

salts, amino acids, glucose, and urea

breaks down globules of fat into tiny droplets


kidneys excrete little urine

marine fish

the clonal selection theory implies that

antigens activate specific lymphocytes

in the inflammatory response, the absence of what prevents others from happening

release of histamine

once stimulated by antigens on the surface of macrophages, helper T cells may

stimulate B cells to divide and develop into plasma cells

after the initial immune response subsides, B cells that patrol body tissues for long periods of time which are responsible for initiating a second immune response

memory cells

in the process of spore formation meiosis occurs in the life cycle of

vascular plants

heterosporus condition led to

gymnosperms, and angiosperms which bear pollen grains and seeds in female and male parts of plants

bryophytes differ in that

have independent gametophytes and dependent sporophytes

first phylum on evolutionary tree with 3 germ layers



organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis


The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.

fossil evidence of earliest living organisms

3.8 billion years ago

formation of polypeptide chains under abiotic conditions

supply structural units and enzymes to catalyze reactions

nematocysts are found only in


mollusks with the most complex nervous system



A ciliated (it propels itself via cilia) protist that lives in fresh water and eats other tiny organisms for food.

collection of spore chambers


red algae can live in deeper water because


first haploid cell in the life cycle of a plant


most unusual feature of echinoderms

water vascular system

rootlike absorbing filaments


seeds commonly provide for each of the following EXCEPT

choice of germination location

carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. the products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant's supply of


what is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant

pollen grain

fruits develop from


cambium cells

a ring of cells that reproduce and increase the diameter of stems and roots


plants that grow on other plants but do not obtain nutrients from their hosts

the pigment responsible for photoperiodism



a plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day


the embryonic root

plants do not have a circulatory system like that of some animals. If a given water molecule did "circulate", it would require the activity of

xylem and phloem

the O2 needed by plants is ultimately derived from



process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

the division of the lateral meristem

increases the diameter of roots and stems

plant spores give rise directly to


in attempting to make a seed break dormancy one logically could treat it with



a growth hormone that causes a wide variety of effects. One role is to stimulate growth of stems by promoting cell division. Farmers use it to make fruit grow larger.

living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes, they transport sugars and other organic nutrients

sieve tube members

what element is a component of both proteins and nucleic acids


which structure must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms

one sperm nucleus and two sperm nuclei (double fertilization)

one is most likely to see guttation in small plants when the

root pressure exceeds the transpiration pull

a botanist discovers a plant that lacks the ability to form starch grains in root cells, yet the roots still grow downward. This evidence refutes the long standing hypothesis that

falling statoliths trigger gravitropism

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