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System of rules about sounds and sound combinations for a language. Phoneme - smallest unit of sound that combines with other sounds to make words.


Study of the structure and content of words forms. Morpheme - smallest units of language that convey meaning (root words and affixes). Not use inflectional endings in their words, may not be consistent in their use of certain morphemes, delayed in irregular past tense)


Grammar (how morphemes and words are correctly combined)


Language content, meaning


Speaker's intent. Used to influence or control the actions or attitudes of others. Communicative competence.


1950's language theory; contends that language was the direct result of the situations surrounding the child; environment controlled all languages


1950's language theory; all language was similar to genetic traits. language determined before birth and developed in a similar manner to other innate characteristics.


Language theory; combination of behaviorism and nativism


Procedure of collecting data about a target behavior or performance of a skill before certain interventions or teaching procedures are implemented

Criterion-Referenced Test

Individual's performance is measured against mastery of curriculum criteria rather than comparison to the performance of other students (ex. Degrees of Reading Power (DRP), CTPIII (verbal and quantitative ability in grades 3-12)

Curriculum-Based Assessment

Assessment of an individual's performance of objectives of a curriculum, such as reading or math program.

Duration Recording

Length of time a behavior lasts

Error Analysis

Mistakes on an individual's test are noted and categorized by type.

Event Recording

Number of time a target behavior occurs during an observation period

Formal Assessment

Standardized tests that have specific procedures for administration, norming, scoring, and interpretation. Intelligence and achievement tests.


Number of times a behavior occurs in a time interval

Frequency Distribution

Plotting the scores received on a test and tallying how many individuals received those scores

Informal Assessment

Non-standardized tests such as criterion referenced tests and teach-prepared tests. No rigid rules.


Degree of a behavior as measured by its frequency and duration

Interval Recording

Break observation period into intervals. Percentage by number of periods behavior occurred over total number of periods.


Length of time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the response

Momentary Time Sampling

Technique used for measuring behaviors of a group of individuals or several behaviors from the same individual. May be conducted at fixed or variable intervals.

Multiple Baseline Design

Test effectiveness of an intervention in a skill performance

Norm-Referenced Test

Individual's performance is compared to the group that was used to calculate the performance standards in this standardized test. (ex. Iowa Test of Basic Skills)

Operational Definition

Description of a behavior and its measurable components.


Specifying and describing the target behavior for change in most measurable and precise terms.


Plotting an individual's behavioral data on a graph.


Frequency of behavior over time

Raw Score

Number of correct responses


Consistency of a test over time. Test-retest method, alternate form, interrater (two or more individuals observing same behavior), internal reliability (one half of test to the other)

Task Analysis

Breaking an academic or behavioral task down into its sequence of steps.


Degree to which test measures what it is supposed to. Content, criterion-referenced, predictive, concurrent, construct (theoretical)

Adaptive Behavior

Knowledge, behavior, and daily living skills that are required to function effectively and independently in a number of different settings.

Summative Assessment

Define student accomplishment with the intent to determine the degree of student mastery or learning that has taken place.

Formative Assessment

Provide on-going feedback on student progress and success of instructional methods and materials.

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)

Teacher observes students to determine antecedent of inappropriate behavior.

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Written plan within the IEP to address behavior difficulties; consists of strategies, accommodations, modifications, supplementary materials, support systems, programs, positive behavioral procedures; implemented across all learning environments

Informal Reading Inventories (IRI)

Series of samples of texts prearranged in stages of increasing difficulty. Pinpoint skill level and the additional concepts they need to work on.


Decode between 95-100%; 90% comprehension


Decode 85-94%; 75% comprehension


Decode below 85%; less than 75% comprehension


Individualized Education Plan. Written statement of the educational program designed to meet the student's needs; developed by a team.

Members of IEP Team

parents, student beginning at age 14&1/2, general ed teacher, special ed teacher, evaluation personnel (school psychologist, other with expertise)

IEP Components

Measurement (initial, annual, how will be assessed and how information will be provided), Services (frequency, duration, location, providers), how child will access general ed curriculum (modifications, technology, ESY, Transition services, LRE), minimum of 1 meeting per year

How Child Accesses General Education

Modifications/supports, assessment accommodations, assistive technology, extended school year (ESY), transition services (beginning when child is 14&1/2), placement in LRE

LRE Scale

General ed, General ed with supplementary aids and services (inclusion), Resource support (SPED less than 40%), Self-Contained Placement (SPED more than 40%), Separate Special Education Day school, Residential Placement, Home-Hospital Placement

Transition Planning

Individuals with Disabilities Act, age 14&1/2 through high school, school to post-school activities whether that be school to home, home to school, high school to college or high school to work


Sensory motor (birth-2), pre-operation (2-7 or early elementary), concrete (7-11 or upper elementary), formal operational (11-15/adolescent into adulthood or high school)

Brain-Based Theory

Knowledge about way the brain retains information enables educators to design the most effective learning environments

Multiple Intelligence Theory

Howard Gardner. Students learn in at least 7 different ways. Visually/spatially, musically, verbally, logically/mathematically, interpersonally, intrapersonally, and bodily/kinesthetic

Constructivist Theory

Belief that students create their own reality of knowledge and how to process and observe the world around them. (1) Learner creates knowledge, (2) Learner constructs and makes meaningful new knowledge out of existing knowledge (3) Learner shapes and construct knowledge by life experiences and social interactions (4) Cooperative classroom - student, teacher, classmates

Social and Behavioral Theories

Social interactions of students in the classroom that instruct or impact learning opportunities in the classroom.

Assistive Technology

IDEA. Services and devices that are used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Augumentative and alternative communication (for speech and hearing capabilities -headpointers, modified typewriters), environmental controls (electronic systems that help people control various appliances, switches, telephone activated by pressure, breath, eyebrows), Seating and Positioning (wedges, braces, belts)

Emotionally Disturbed

Lower academic problems (below 90 IQ), social skill deficits, disruptive classroom behavior, aggressive behavior, delinquency (socialized aggression), withdrawn behaviors. Family - abuse and neglect, lack of appropriate supervision, lax discipline, negative adult roles, lack of proper healthcare, disruption in family, includes schizophrenia

Mental Retardation or Intellectual disability

IQ of below 70. Limited cognitive ability; delayed academic achievement, particularly in language-related subjects. Deficits in memory. Poor reaction to stimuli.


By age 3. Apparent sensory deficit, severe affect isolation, self-stimulation (repetitive behavior), SIB, echolalia, severe deficits in behavior and self-care skills

L2 Acquisition

After age 7, will never be fully proficient. Jim Cummins - Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) & Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS) -much longer to master. Stephen Krashen - Acquisition-Learning, Monitor, Natural Order, Input (comprehensible), Affective Filter (relaxed, high levels of motivation, self-confidence)

Stages of Second Language Development

Pre-Production, Early Production, Emergent Speech, Intermediate Fluency, Advanced Fluency (still need support)

Universal Grammar

Noam Chomsky. Brain has a "universal grammar" and that only vocabulary and very particular grammatical structures, related to specific languages, need to be introduced in order for a child to learn a language.

Bottom Up/ Code Emphasis

Letter-sound regularity. Decoding. Phonics, linguistic, DISTAR

Top Down/ Meaning Emphasis Model

Reading for meaning. Whole language, language experiences, individualized reading programs.

Word Attack Skills

Technique analysis, contextual and configuration clues, and decoding.

Sight Words

Dolch, easily identified by reader

Individuals with Disabilities Act 2004

FAPE (free appropriate public education) - meet unique needs and prepare them for employment and living; educational benefit law; scope smaller than Section 504

Section 504

Provision of Rehabilitation Acts of 1973 that prohibits public schools from discriminating against people with disabilities; civil rights act; broader than IDEA

ADA 1990

Civil Rights for individuals with disabilities

No Child Left Behind 2002

addresses accountability of school personnel for student achievement with the expectation that every child will demonstrate proficiency in math, reading and science

Cognitive Disability

Significantly below average general intellectual functioning

Hearing Impairment

Permanent of temporary impairment that adversely affects school performance

Multiple Disabilities

Combination of various impairments that cause such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. Doesn't include deaf-blindness.

Orthopedic Impairment

Includes orthopedic impairments caused by a congenital anomaly or disease and impairments from other causes (cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns)

Other Health Impaired (OHI)

An educational classification that describes students who have chronic or acute health problems that cause limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Specific Learning Disability

a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding/using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations (includes perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia) - does not include being from environmental, cognitive disability, emotional, visual, motor


disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language

Speech/Language Impairment

A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment or voice impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

An acquired injury to brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychological impairment. Does not include being from congenital anomaly or induced at birth.

Child Find

Requirement that states identify, locate and evaluate students with disabilities

Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)

outlines services to be delivered to families of infants/toddlers needing special services. Under age 3.


an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior


Behavior modification tactic where student must engage in repetitive behavior as a penalty for inappropriate behavior.
Restitutional - correct and go extra mile
Positive - behavior correctly
Negative - behavior incorrectly

Positive Enforcement

Reward received for good behavior

Negative Reinforcement

Something unpleasant taken away as a reward for good behavior


Ignore inappropriate behavior so that it will stop

Response Cost

Toll or fine imposed in response to inappropriate behavior


is the technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed sequence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior without assistance


is an instructional procedure which involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior. Forward and Backward (show all the first steps and just leave the step before the last step incomplete)

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)

providing a reinforcer for the absence of a target response. A reinforcer is delivered if a specified time elapses without a response.

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior

a form or subcategory or DRA in which the alternative response is physically incompatible with the target response

RTI (Response to Intervention)

Approach to redesigning and establishing teaching and learning environments that are effective, efficient, relevant, and durable, for all students, families, and educators. Three tiers. Screening --> evaluation. Parent can ask for child to be evaluated at any time.


Process of asking the school district to evaluate a student to decide if the student qualifies to received special education services. A referral can be made either by a school district or or by a parent or guardian. Required first step before an evaluation can take place.

Date of Referral

Date of written parental consent for an evaluation. Screening is NOT evaluation. Within 14 days then district decides whether to do evaluation. Parents can request due process if they are denied. To be eligible to receive SPED student must have a disability that effects education.

Reevaluations of SPED

Must occur at least once every 3 years at less parents and school think it is unnecessary but if parent disagrees they can request an evaluation


Independent Educational Evaluations. If parent doesn't believe evaluation shows accurate picture of their student. Parents can request that a new evaluation be completed by an outside person or agency.

Development Delay

A delay in physical development, cognitive development, communication development, adaptive development, social emotional development or adaptive development (3-9)

Transitional Services

141/2-22; coordinated set of activities that focus on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child to facilitate movement from school to post-school. Instruction, related services, community experience, vocational.

Summary of Performance

SOP. when FAPE ends. Recommendations for how to assist post-school.

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