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96 terms

ICTS Special Education Learning Behavior Specialist I 155

STUDY
PLAY
Phonology
System of rules about sounds and sound combinations for a language. Phoneme - smallest unit of sound that combines with other sounds to make words.
Morphology
Study of the structure and content of words forms. Morpheme - smallest units of language that convey meaning (root words and affixes). Not use inflectional endings in their words, may not be consistent in their use of certain morphemes, delayed in irregular past tense)
Syntax
Grammar (how morphemes and words are correctly combined)
Semantics
Language content, meaning
Pragmatics
Speaker's intent. Used to influence or control the actions or attitudes of others. Communicative competence.
Behaviorism
1950's language theory; contends that language was the direct result of the situations surrounding the child; environment controlled all languages
Nativism
1950's language theory; all language was similar to genetic traits. language determined before birth and developed in a similar manner to other innate characteristics.
Interactionist
Language theory; combination of behaviorism and nativism
Baseline
Procedure of collecting data about a target behavior or performance of a skill before certain interventions or teaching procedures are implemented
Criterion-Referenced Test
Individual's performance is measured against mastery of curriculum criteria rather than comparison to the performance of other students (ex. Degrees of Reading Power (DRP), CTPIII (verbal and quantitative ability in grades 3-12)
Curriculum-Based Assessment
Assessment of an individual's performance of objectives of a curriculum, such as reading or math program.
Duration Recording
Length of time a behavior lasts
Error Analysis
Mistakes on an individual's test are noted and categorized by type.
Event Recording
Number of time a target behavior occurs during an observation period
Formal Assessment
Standardized tests that have specific procedures for administration, norming, scoring, and interpretation. Intelligence and achievement tests.
Frequency
Number of times a behavior occurs in a time interval
Frequency Distribution
Plotting the scores received on a test and tallying how many individuals received those scores
Informal Assessment
Non-standardized tests such as criterion referenced tests and teach-prepared tests. No rigid rules.
Intensity
Degree of a behavior as measured by its frequency and duration
Interval Recording
Break observation period into intervals. Percentage by number of periods behavior occurred over total number of periods.
Latency
Length of time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the response
Momentary Time Sampling
Technique used for measuring behaviors of a group of individuals or several behaviors from the same individual. May be conducted at fixed or variable intervals.
Multiple Baseline Design
Test effectiveness of an intervention in a skill performance
Norm-Referenced Test
Individual's performance is compared to the group that was used to calculate the performance standards in this standardized test. (ex. Iowa Test of Basic Skills)
Operational Definition
Description of a behavior and its measurable components.
Pinpoint
Specifying and describing the target behavior for change in most measurable and precise terms.
Profile
Plotting an individual's behavioral data on a graph.
Rate
Frequency of behavior over time
Raw Score
Number of correct responses
Reliability
Consistency of a test over time. Test-retest method, alternate form, interrater (two or more individuals observing same behavior), internal reliability (one half of test to the other)
Task Analysis
Breaking an academic or behavioral task down into its sequence of steps.
Validity
Degree to which test measures what it is supposed to. Content, criterion-referenced, predictive, concurrent, construct (theoretical)
Adaptive Behavior
Knowledge, behavior, and daily living skills that are required to function effectively and independently in a number of different settings.
Summative Assessment
Define student accomplishment with the intent to determine the degree of student mastery or learning that has taken place.
Formative Assessment
Provide on-going feedback on student progress and success of instructional methods and materials.
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
Teacher observes students to determine antecedent of inappropriate behavior.
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Written plan within the IEP to address behavior difficulties; consists of strategies, accommodations, modifications, supplementary materials, support systems, programs, positive behavioral procedures; implemented across all learning environments
Informal Reading Inventories (IRI)
Series of samples of texts prearranged in stages of increasing difficulty. Pinpoint skill level and the additional concepts they need to work on.
Independent
Decode between 95-100%; 90% comprehension
Instructional
Decode 85-94%; 75% comprehension
Frustrational
Decode below 85%; less than 75% comprehension
IEP
Individualized Education Plan. Written statement of the educational program designed to meet the student's needs; developed by a team.
Members of IEP Team
parents, student beginning at age 14&1/2, general ed teacher, special ed teacher, evaluation personnel (school psychologist, other with expertise)
IEP Components
Measurement (initial, annual, how will be assessed and how information will be provided), Services (frequency, duration, location, providers), how child will access general ed curriculum (modifications, technology, ESY, Transition services, LRE), minimum of 1 meeting per year
How Child Accesses General Education
Modifications/supports, assessment accommodations, assistive technology, extended school year (ESY), transition services (beginning when child is 14&1/2), placement in LRE
LRE Scale
General ed, General ed with supplementary aids and services (inclusion), Resource support (SPED less than 40%), Self-Contained Placement (SPED more than 40%), Separate Special Education Day school, Residential Placement, Home-Hospital Placement
Transition Planning
Individuals with Disabilities Act, age 14&1/2 through high school, school to post-school activities whether that be school to home, home to school, high school to college or high school to work
Piaget
Sensory motor (birth-2), pre-operation (2-7 or early elementary), concrete (7-11 or upper elementary), formal operational (11-15/adolescent into adulthood or high school)
Brain-Based Theory
Knowledge about way the brain retains information enables educators to design the most effective learning environments
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner. Students learn in at least 7 different ways. Visually/spatially, musically, verbally, logically/mathematically, interpersonally, intrapersonally, and bodily/kinesthetic
Constructivist Theory
Belief that students create their own reality of knowledge and how to process and observe the world around them. (1) Learner creates knowledge, (2) Learner constructs and makes meaningful new knowledge out of existing knowledge (3) Learner shapes and construct knowledge by life experiences and social interactions (4) Cooperative classroom - student, teacher, classmates
Social and Behavioral Theories
Social interactions of students in the classroom that instruct or impact learning opportunities in the classroom.
Assistive Technology
IDEA. Services and devices that are used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Augumentative and alternative communication (for speech and hearing capabilities -headpointers, modified typewriters), environmental controls (electronic systems that help people control various appliances, switches, telephone activated by pressure, breath, eyebrows), Seating and Positioning (wedges, braces, belts)
Emotionally Disturbed
Lower academic problems (below 90 IQ), social skill deficits, disruptive classroom behavior, aggressive behavior, delinquency (socialized aggression), withdrawn behaviors. Family - abuse and neglect, lack of appropriate supervision, lax discipline, negative adult roles, lack of proper healthcare, disruption in family, includes schizophrenia
Mental Retardation or Intellectual disability
IQ of below 70. Limited cognitive ability; delayed academic achievement, particularly in language-related subjects. Deficits in memory. Poor reaction to stimuli.
Autism
By age 3. Apparent sensory deficit, severe affect isolation, self-stimulation (repetitive behavior), SIB, echolalia, severe deficits in behavior and self-care skills
L2 Acquisition
After age 7, will never be fully proficient. Jim Cummins - Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) & Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS) -much longer to master. Stephen Krashen - Acquisition-Learning, Monitor, Natural Order, Input (comprehensible), Affective Filter (relaxed, high levels of motivation, self-confidence)
Stages of Second Language Development
Pre-Production, Early Production, Emergent Speech, Intermediate Fluency, Advanced Fluency (still need support)
Universal Grammar
Noam Chomsky. Brain has a "universal grammar" and that only vocabulary and very particular grammatical structures, related to specific languages, need to be introduced in order for a child to learn a language.
Bottom Up/ Code Emphasis
Letter-sound regularity. Decoding. Phonics, linguistic, DISTAR
Top Down/ Meaning Emphasis Model
Reading for meaning. Whole language, language experiences, individualized reading programs.
Word Attack Skills
Technique analysis, contextual and configuration clues, and decoding.
Sight Words
Dolch, easily identified by reader
Individuals with Disabilities Act 2004
FAPE (free appropriate public education) - meet unique needs and prepare them for employment and living; educational benefit law; scope smaller than Section 504
Section 504
Provision of Rehabilitation Acts of 1973 that prohibits public schools from discriminating against people with disabilities; civil rights act; broader than IDEA
ADA 1990
Civil Rights for individuals with disabilities
No Child Left Behind 2002
addresses accountability of school personnel for student achievement with the expectation that every child will demonstrate proficiency in math, reading and science
Cognitive Disability
Significantly below average general intellectual functioning
Hearing Impairment
Permanent of temporary impairment that adversely affects school performance
Multiple Disabilities
Combination of various impairments that cause such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. Doesn't include deaf-blindness.
Orthopedic Impairment
Includes orthopedic impairments caused by a congenital anomaly or disease and impairments from other causes (cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns)
Other Health Impaired (OHI)
An educational classification that describes students who have chronic or acute health problems that cause limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
Specific Learning Disability
a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding/using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations (includes perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia) - does not include being from environmental, cognitive disability, emotional, visual, motor
Aphasia
disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language
Speech/Language Impairment
A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment or voice impairment
Traumatic Brain Injury
An acquired injury to brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychological impairment. Does not include being from congenital anomaly or induced at birth.
Child Find
Requirement that states identify, locate and evaluate students with disabilities
Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)
outlines services to be delivered to families of infants/toddlers needing special services. Under age 3.
Shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Overcorrection
Behavior modification tactic where student must engage in repetitive behavior as a penalty for inappropriate behavior.
Restitutional - correct and go extra mile
Positive - behavior correctly
Negative - behavior incorrectly
Positive Enforcement
Reward received for good behavior
Negative Reinforcement
Something unpleasant taken away as a reward for good behavior
Extinction
Ignore inappropriate behavior so that it will stop
Response Cost
Toll or fine imposed in response to inappropriate behavior
Fading
is the technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed sequence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior without assistance
Chaining
is an instructional procedure which involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior. Forward and Backward (show all the first steps and just leave the step before the last step incomplete)
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
providing a reinforcer for the absence of a target response. A reinforcer is delivered if a specified time elapses without a response.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior
a form or subcategory or DRA in which the alternative response is physically incompatible with the target response
RTI (Response to Intervention)
Approach to redesigning and establishing teaching and learning environments that are effective, efficient, relevant, and durable, for all students, families, and educators. Three tiers. Screening --> evaluation. Parent can ask for child to be evaluated at any time.
Referral
Process of asking the school district to evaluate a student to decide if the student qualifies to received special education services. A referral can be made either by a school district or or by a parent or guardian. Required first step before an evaluation can take place.
Date of Referral
Date of written parental consent for an evaluation. Screening is NOT evaluation. Within 14 days then district decides whether to do evaluation. Parents can request due process if they are denied. To be eligible to receive SPED student must have a disability that effects education.
Reevaluations of SPED
Must occur at least once every 3 years at less parents and school think it is unnecessary but if parent disagrees they can request an evaluation
IEE
Independent Educational Evaluations. If parent doesn't believe evaluation shows accurate picture of their student. Parents can request that a new evaluation be completed by an outside person or agency.
Development Delay
A delay in physical development, cognitive development, communication development, adaptive development, social emotional development or adaptive development (3-9)
Transitional Services
141/2-22; coordinated set of activities that focus on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child to facilitate movement from school to post-school. Instruction, related services, community experience, vocational.
Summary of Performance
SOP. when FAPE ends. Recommendations for how to assist post-school.