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B.G. Tilak

first populist leader in India; believed that Indian nationalism should be grounded in the Hindu majority.

Dinshawi incident

1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental Egyptian death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression which stimulated nationalist sentiment.

Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (1919)

increased national powers of Indian legislators and placed provincial administrations under ministries controlled by Indian-elected legislatures.

Rowlatt Act (1919)

placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights; undercut impact of the MontaguChelmsford reforms.

Muslim League

founded in 1906 to support demands of the Muslim peoples of India against the Hindu majority; gained separate electorates and legislative seats; divided the Indian nationalist movement.


governments entrusted to victorious European World War I nations over the colonies of the defeated powers.


Eastern European movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine.

Theodor Hertzl

Austrian Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; was indifferent to Arabs and promoted Jewish immigration into Palestine to form a Jewish state.

Atlantic Charter (1941)

British-American agreement; included a provision that recognized the right of all people to choose their form of government.

Land Freedom Army

African revolutionary movement for reform of Kenyan colonial system; began a conflict in 1952; called the Mau Mau by the British.

Afrikaner National Party

became the majority in the all-white South African legislature in 1948;

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