Flashcards for Pilates/Yoga
Terms in this set (109)
8 benefits of yoga
Strength, Flexibility Coordination, Core Strength, Lung Capacity, Increased Circulation, Balance, Posture
What are the two books Joseph Pilates wrote?
Your Health, Return to Life Through Conrtology
Pilates is a method of exercise and physical movement designed to stretch, strengthen, and balance the body. With systematic practice of specific exercises coupled with focused breathing patterns. Classical Pilates uses few repetitions and a large variety of movements so that precision can be practiced without fatigue and be frequently reinforced.
What makes Peak Pilates authentic and unique? As a reference (not to talk to with clients)
1. We teach neutral spine but is not the goal. Neutral spine is natural gravity of their own body standing. The curve will be less in supine and we do not want to force the curve. 2. Optimal alignment is neutral pelvis. You can teach in and out of neutral pelvis. Neutral pelvis is different for each person.
What makes Peak Pilates authentic and unique?
1. Transition is still an exercise. It mimics something you will do on your daily life. Links the exercises together...becomes a dance. 2. Focus on flow. Concentration and precision develops endurance and stamina. The endurance and stamina provides cardio. 3. It is taught as a movement system linked intelligently with purpose. 4. Teaches each exercise with a unique and dynamic rhythm. 5. Teaches Pilates in its original form. Learning classical Pilates..only thing changed is how to help the body. 6. Uses systematic order. Level order. Learn the recipe before breaking down the recipe. 7. Recommends to teach one on one and small group. 8. How to help others with injuries or cases? 9. Sessions have a beginning, middle, end. Begins supine and ends vertical. 10. Focus on movement and transition with concentration.
Peak Pilates Philosophy of Teaching
Change happens through movement and movement heals
The six Pilates principles
1. Control 2. Centering 3. Concentration 4. Breath 5. Flow 6. Precision
Five parts of the mind
1. Intelligence 2. Imagination 3. Intuition 4. Memory 5. Will and Desire
What two things make up the Peak principles
1. The six Pilate principles 2. Five parts of the mind
(These principles are not magic. They are simply good sound practices that impart important movement qualities to the exercises.)
What is concentration?
Increases total body proprioception, making movements automatic and ingrained
What is Centering?
All movement comes from the center. It is the focal point of each exercise.
What is control?
Brings all parts of the body and mind into a physical movement experience.
What is breathing?
Full exhalation and inhalation increases oxygen supply to cells with increased waste removal. It stimulates breathing, facilitates core support, and initiates movement.
what is precision?
Not what you do, it's how you do it. Every movement has a purpose. Every cue or instruction is important to execution.
What is flowing movement?
Pilates is light and fluid. Working with flowing movement facilitates pilates movement into daily life. Creation of fluid movement will help trigger points from forming into releasing those that already exist.
Five part formula for success in Peak Pilates
1. Peak principles 2. Session Format 3. Teaching Methodology 4. Presentation Skills 5. Progression Guidelines
PS1: Lesson 55 min.- Mat 15-20 min., Reformer for 20 min., Individual Needs 10 min., Endings 5 min.
Why does Pilates start supine?
because gravity works against the spine in a upright posture. He started students lying down. He also did not want to put any undo strain or stress on the hearts and joint. The student works and experiences the gravitational shift from lying down to seated to standing. Always end the class vertical to gravity.
Teaching methodology - What are the seven steps to teaching methodology?
1. Setup 2. Execution 3. Flow 4. Cueing 5. Rhythm 6. Voice 7. Breath Dynamics
What are the six elements of presentation skills?
1. Safety 2. Exercise Delivery 3. Teacher's Posture 4. Touch Techniques 5. Professionalism 6. Teacher Mindfulness
What are the six guidelines for progression?
1. You adhere to the session format appropriate for the students ' level teaching Pilates as a system. 2. Introduce no more than one variation or exercise for apparatus. 3. Teach to the students' ideal.
This could be to the optimal ROM or the ideal form of the exercise. 4. Build strength and stamina through successive steps toward the ultimate goal and ideal form of the exercise. 5. Teach transitions as part of the exercise. 6. Challenge the ideal with props, variations, rhythm, flow, and breath. Not with more repetitions.
The beginning position of the body and the apparatus for each exercise
Simple and clear words that puts the exercise in motion
Connective quality reflected in each movement, sequence of movements, and teaching of the exercises
A communication to initiate, stabilize, and refine movement
Timing of a movement establishes a pattern. Different from pace or tempo, which describes the speed of the exercise.
The instrument used to emphasize the dyname essence of a movement. Intonation should match the dynamics of the movement. Soft voice is used for smooth movement sections. Empathetic voice for difficult movements. Suspend the voice to pause the movement or simply hum while keeping the rhythm.
Breath Dynamics Def.
Use of the breath to connect and stabilize the mind and the body. I.e. exhale fully and completely, use your lungs
Closed toe shoes are required. Form a apparatus stand to encourage safety. Be alert of items left on the floor. A safe environment encourages confidence and prevents mishaps.
Exercise delivery Def.
Presentation focuses on the goal and the technique which gives form to the exercise delivery for the first half of the repetitions and on working energy, dynamics, and flow for the second half. Think first about direction, later focus on correction.
Teacher posture def.
Posture is a powerful reflection of the teachers' Pilates practice. Teachers should move with purpose, ease and intent.
touching is a form of bio feedback that helps people gain control over their bodies using their mental processes, touching reinforces the visual and verbal sides of teaching
appearance, behavior, and attitude constitute personal professionalism, appropriate attire includes being neat, clean at all times, avoid the use of wearing heavy perfume , and not wearing excessive amounts of jewelry. Having a positive attitude, being respectful of other pilates and mind body spirit modalities. Not gossiping, using appropriate channels to voice professional concerns, having personal integrity and self respect.
centerness, mental focus, clarity, permit, guided intent
how and when to advance a student is dictated by the students' physical ability, mental readiness, as well as teachers' knowledge of the system
6 Progression Guidelines
1. adhere to session format appropriate for students' level, teach pilates as a system 2. introduce no more than 1 new variation or exercise for apparatus, so 3 to 4 for total progression 3. teach to the students' ideal, this could be the optimal range of motion or ability, or it could be the ideal form of the exercise 4. build strength and stamina through successive steps toward the ultimate goal and ideal form of the exercise 5. teach transitions as part of the exercise 6. challenge the ideal with props, variations, rhythm, flow, breath, and not with more repetitions
What are indicators of progressing too quickly?
loss of concentration, loss of coordination, control and precision, poor technique, which can be potentially dangerous, pain following the session
What is another name for the introductory system?
From a mental and emotional standpoint, progressing students involves consideration of their capability to memorize, to remember previous corrections, to implement key concepts, to use their will and desire to improve, to commit to Pilates
What are the 5 main categories to determine the degree of difficulty for an exercise?
1. center of gravity 2. base of support 3. surface stability 4. movement complexity 5. tempo and rhythm variations
Center of gravity
its the point of where all the body's weight is concentrated or where the weight of the body is maybe said to act. When standing the center of gravity is at the navel, for men it is slightly higher. Center of gravity is at the upper third of the sacrum.
Base of Support
both the body part that is in contact with the supporting surface and the intervening area
the lighter the spring load the less stable it is, surface stability coupled with center of gravity, base of support dictates the degree of balance and difficulty
A complex movement pattern requires coordination of multiple actions in a sequence, sometimes associated with rhythm changes and breath dynamics
Rhythm Tempo Variations
rhythm, flow, and tempo are balanced with precision, rhythm is timing and can be slower or faster, tempo is the pace of an exercise, referring to the speed of movement, exercise soreness is not the goal
Define what a series is
Series links one movement to the next, keeping the spring moving, it relies on flow and precision, requires memory, concentration, control and focus
Ten main series
1. Foot work 2. Rowing 3. Stomach Massage 4. Long Box Series 5. Short Box 6. Long Stretch 7. Knee Stretch 8. Split Series 9. Abdominal 10. Side Kick Series
Foot work series
you begin in horizontal position to reduce the affects of gravity on the body and to allow the spine to release and lengthen. The muscles work without strain, the organs settle into their correct positions, it initiates from the abdominals and buttocks, focusing on length, alignment and breath. Centering the mind, preparing it for the upcoming workout. It stimulates different parts of the foot, coincides with reflexology points, linking together without letting the springs fully disengage or stop between flowing repetitions. The trick is keeping the powerhouse active while changing foot positions, lifting both feet to the next position at the same time.
compromises 6 different and complicated movements. Executed correctly looks and feels like a dance (not an arm movement, full body)
Stomach Massage Series
provides a deep massage to the internal organs, gives a strong stretch to the spine, teaches how to lift out of the hips and back in different positions. Round teaches how to curl forward and how to lift out of the hips without collapsing and how to move against the outside force of the spring. Hands Back teaches how to lift and open the chest, stretching the upper spine. The lift and core activation is further utilized and challenged in the last two. Dynamic lifting, lengthening, and decompressing of the spine developed in this series functionally transvers to many other exercises and good posture in general. The key to teaching this series well is to get the length in the spine while pushing out and working to keep that lift as the carriage comes in all the way.
Long Box Series
provides complimentary exercises for the front and back of the body beginning with pulling straps to strengthen the upper back, to open the chest and shoulders. Back stroke is for abdominals and prepares for teasers. When executed with grace and efficiency of movement this gives students valuable insight on how to ultimately perform the entire pilates series both physically and mentally
Short Box Series
it continues the process of limbering and stretching the spine and legs as it teaches the basics of how to assess the powerhouse in various torso positions. It works and strengthens the trunk in all planes. When well executed with a lift in the spine, it teaches how to sit up properly without putting the weight of the torso into the hips and lower back, thus strengthening torso. Round teaches how to lift out of the hips, off the buttocks, to roll correctly into a posterior tilt by initiating the movement from the scoop. Flat teaches how to sit up and separate the hips out of the pelvis. Instructs how to stabilize the trunk, while challenging shoulder flexibility and stability of the shoulder gurdle. Side to side lengthens the side of the body and strengthens the lateral side flexors (this is the first exercise that teaches how to correctly side bend by lifting the rib cage off the pelvis as opposed to collapsing the ribs and bending to the side). Twist deeply works the obliques and challenges torso strength.
Long Stretch Series
This series develops coordination of the upper body working together with the powerhouse and trunk. Examples: elephant- teaches how to move the legs away from the hips while keeping the dome shape of the spine from deep within the powerhouse, it teaches how to properly position and stabilize the upper body (upper body is defined as the rib cage, shoulders, and arms) giving it enough strength to hold the succeeding positions. Long Stretch challenges core control and stabilization in a less stable position. Down stretch is a spinal extension and breathing exercise that promotes fully emptying of the lungs and opposition from heels through crown and extension. Stork... Arabesque further challenges balance and increases flexibility of the hamstring.
Knee Stretch Series
teaches isolation of hip movement from the upper body in three progressively difficult positions. It pumps up the body by dynamically working and strengthing the large muscle groups. Round strengthens the abdominals in a concentric contraction as well as strengthening the buttocks and legs. Arched teaches how to teach abdominals to work in a lengthened position. Knees off is short movements to long and strong strides. Connecting them all without missing a beat. Prepares you for the ultimate advanced challenge.
Designed to progressively lengthen and stretch the entire lower body by establishing balance, agility, alignment and coordination.
designed so that your abdominal, hips and lower back are worked and stretched. First is unilateral leg movement that activates the abdominals and lengthens the spine. then we move to a more challenging bilateral leg movement. then go to a unilateral the bilateral leg movement. We end with unilateral leg movement. Making it completely balanced. If taught too quickly it creates poor working habits by using the spine and neck to perform the movements.
Why the order?
The order provides a starting point with the purpose of providing balance with the body and mind. They provide consistency for the student and a framework to build the system to higher levels. Performing the exercise order again and again creates changes in the neuromuscular system. Instead of needing more repetitions, advanced students learn to work deeper to refine movements, increase intensity with a greater focus, precision, rhythm, flow, and breath dynamics.
Joseph Pilates method
was corrective, health promoting for all systems of the body, including the circulatory, the endocrine, and lymphatic system
uses gravity to help the spine lengthen into the mat. The student immediately gets into his/her powerhouse. Full breathing helps increase circulation into the heart and lungs and provides heat to the body.
stretches the spine and continues the work into the powerhouse
one leg circle
challenges the powerhouse to stabilize the torso so the legs can move independently from the pelvis and spine. Provides circulation to the lower extremities with a alengthening quality to the legs. At this point the spine has been warmed up, mobilized and stabilized
Rolling like a ball
The spine is ready for an aligment challenge and restoration. the spine is being massaged while the powerhouse is being further challenged.
Abdominal Series provides
provides concentrated strengthening of the powerhouse and all of the abdominals
Spine stretch forward and saw
provide a deep stretch for the spine while reinforcing deep breathing with deep focus on the exhale
Side Kick Series
energized powerhouse, the body is challenged from a new, less stable position, adding circulation the lower extremities
provides a final spinal massage while helping to soothe the nervous system
Why does every session end in part D endings?
the benefits of the session can be integrated and brought forth into daily life
Minimum of movement includes
extraneous, unnecessary, irrelevant physical motions during the session. This includes. fidgeting, spontaneous non pilates stretching, extra steps walking around the apparatus, or extra motions setting up the apparatus, unnecessary activity, picking up the reformer box, poles or pads, and various aspects of grooming such as fixing hair, adjusting clothing, wiping sweat
Why is the degree of movement efficiency necessary?
the method is an art form as well as science of the body. it is essential to consistently strive toward creating seamless flow or the river of energy that smoothly connects all exercises together, transporting pilates into poetry of motion. This is the magic that students of Joseph Pilates made famous and it is our responsibility to reserve.
How did Joseph Pilates show that movement efficiency is fundamental?
most challenging and suddle aspects of his work
1. harmonious composition of the pilates workout
2. the integrity of each exercise and how well the arrangement of the exercises compliment one another in an organized whole
3. quality exceeds the sum of the parts
4. utilization of space and your relationship and to the apparatus
5. choices about transitions between exercises
What happens if you go too slow in your rhythm, timing and tempo?
You end up isolating different muscle groups
what happens if you go too fast?
the work is missed
The balance point of flowing movement
is where coordination of movement and breath emerge
What are fundamentals?
They are pre pilates exercises that break down the elementary skills needed to properly perform an exercise
Why do we use fundamentals?
Center the mind and body at the beginning of a sessions, refine a specific aspect of an exercise by observing and error in a biomechanical pattern, enhances movement quality, improve technique, and promote performance. Helps to identify and strengthen the weak link in a chain of movement and working with individual needs.
When do I use fundamentals?
They help to awaken the mind body spirit connection. It helps the student transition from the mental to the physical realms. Spend no more than 3 to 5 minutes. Plan what fundamentals to teach together for maximum impact. Choose fundamentals to help meet desired goals.
Communication consists of two parts
1. it involves verbal and nonverbal communication
2. listening skills
What are the two models for educating adults are?
content focus and performance focus
a method of teaching content and memorization. For pilates, this is not an effective method of education.
this is a student centered approach which includes learning, processing information, and applying information. In pilates, this makes a connection between the exercise and their bodies which need to change.
Cue and Concepts
Cueing with an emphasis on efficiency and economy of words is essential to keeping the exercise flowing because short term memory is able to retain information for only 15 seconds and we can only store about 7 pieces of information at a time. So economy is important in the learning experience. Short and repetitive cues help to reinforce information so it can be applied to the body overtime, stored in long term memory where it can be called forth whenever needed. Mostly in the command style, present tense, positive cueing lends itself to developing flow. Pilates instructors facilitate this learning.
Rhythm and Timing
Provides cues at the appropriate time leading students into movement with timing and words. Cues are best absorbed when they fit into natural rhythm of a movement pattern.
Cue to the students level and stage of learning
If you are working with beginner students who are just learning the gross, motor patterns of exercise. Your cues will be a lot different than working with an advanced student for refining the exact exercise.
use positive cues
cue the solution not the problem, building self esteem
use the name of the exercise, stating it as part of the transition
this will help the student learn exercise names, order, and improve flow
Provide only one correctional cue at a time
short time span covered in any one exercise, focus on what the student needs more to improve. Avoid over cueing
every pilates exercise is to be stabilized and initiated from the powerhouse
scoop and hollow, seat to feet, draw the abs in and up, lift the low belly to the ribs, powerhouse holds you steady, navel in and up, powerhouse, button your buttons, pull the last three buttons in and lift, abs in not shift, zip it up
provides specific reference points to action and position
words not to say
drop, down, good, but, how, why, we're gonna, um, ok, are, we
words such as: lengthen, activate, initiate, challenge, oppose, flow, and float. They improve the quality of movement.
it enhances the learning experience and can add to the class and can add quality of movement
It enhances flow, ensures an even number of repetitions on both sides, it indicates when a change is coming
sound or sing song expressions that establish or reinforce rhythm
They're outside of rhythm and use them minimally
Move Beyond Near Words
It's important to be aware of the power and impact of communication factors that are beyond words
Voice Volume and Dynamics
intonation helps reinforce cues, adds power, and provides rhythm for other exercises
Facial Expressions is a powerful communication tool
a smile or a gesture will reinforce
the instructor needs to be seen, to be present, to hold their spot with strength, and move with purpose
a touch will stay in the working memory for 20 to 30 seconds. It is a powerful way to correct and help a student feel a sensation of the exercise
True listening requires the attention of 4 things:
understand, enjoy, learn, give help or solace
Four tips for affective listening:
1. listen with a passive face and open posture
2. after hearing the words determine which of the above responses are appropriate (mirror back what you just heard, ask curious questions)
3. conversation need not be hurried, take a moment, clarify or paraphrase the question if needed, then provide a thoughtful response
4. listen, stay objective, make sure that the verbal and nonverbal response matter
Touching is a form of communication.
Touch Techniques are
1. redirect the focus of the students attention toward a specific part of the body
2. provide a form bio feedback to the brain
3. facilitate muscle contraction
4. enable the teacher to evaluate muscle tension and imbalances during exercise
5. assist, support, and guide movement
6. help bring the student out of the mind and into the body
Touch techniques used are
1. moving into touch
2. moving away from touch
3. guiding touch
4. stabilizing touch
5. supportive touch
6. activating touch
7. investigative touch
8. releasing touch
Overtouching robs the student of
their own learning process, or constrict them of ownership of their practice
Guidelines for touch techniques
1. touch techniques should be applied confidently or not at all
2. touch should be applied to assist learning and proper execution
3. touch with purpose and intent
4. touch with permission
5. touch wisely
6. touch with pressure that matches the movement quality
7. touch should match your verbal cues
8. touch should never force a body into position or movement
9. apply touch to muscles not joints
10. don't rush touches
11. touch should not endanger you
12. when in doubt leave it out
the pathways of learning...
shoulder complex includes
glenohumeral joint, acromioclavicular joint, sternoclavicular joint, two scapula, two clavicle, and at no point does this complex attach to the spine
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