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Holes in the ground which generate steam or hot gases from below. Often harnessed to make electricity in areas of active volcanism.


A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.

Bubbling mud

Where mud is melted and mixed with water by geothermal heat


of or relating to the heat in the interior of the earth

Hot springs

formed when magma heats groundwater and the water rises and collects in a natural pool.


Mounds of sulphur precipitated out of heated volcanic waters

Extrusive volcanic Features

Those landforms formed by vulcanism that are created AT the surface, can be small or major features

Shield volcano

A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava

Strato volcano

The most common volcano. Known for its layers of lava flows and cinder. Built up by violent eruptions that leave the tephra followed by calm eruptions that leave lava flows. They build tall and steep volcanoes.

Dome volcano

a volcano with steep sides that is formed by thick Rhyolitic lava flows


a large crater caused by the violent explosion of a volcano that collapses into a depression

Lava Plateau

a wide, flat landform that results from repeated nonexplosive eruptions of lava that spread over a large area


Volcanic features fomed where magma is cooled INSIDE the Lithosphere to be later exposed by denudation


Thin vertical veins of igneous rock that form when magma enters and cools in fractures found within the crust.


A flat, horizontal mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock

Metamorphic rocks

Rocks formed when other rocks are put under extreme heat and pressure

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