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For human biology 2012 RHS


the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules


the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion


cells lining the intestinal tract and responsible for absorption of nutrients


layer superficial to the mucosa which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves


outer layer or convering of the alimentary canal, made of visceral peritoneum; its function is protection and secretion of serous fluid to reduce friction


the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along


enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

know the three salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual


Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.

gastric juice

a liquid that includes hydrochloric acid and pepsin and that is responsible for the chemical digestion of protein in the stomach

intestinal juice

fluid that intestinal glands secrete, containing digestive enzymes


membrane extension of peritoneum that suspends intestines and provides blood and lymphatic vessels


Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach


inactive form of pepsin


hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice


Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats


an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine


enzyme that breaks down specific peptide bonds


hormone produced on duodenum wall that stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralized acid in duodenum


process in which bile breaks down fat

know the parts of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum


A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine

know the parts of the large intestine

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, cecum. appendix, ileocecal valve

know the functions of the large intestine

mucous production, absorb water, break down cellulose, produce Vit K, B12, thiamine, and riboflavin, produce fecal material


chronic disease charaterized by degeneration of liver tissue most oftern caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)


inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa


inflammation of the gums


A digestive disorder in which abnormal pouches form in the walls of the intestine and become inflamed. Inflammation of the small pouch-like sacs full of feces.

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