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28 terms

Topic 9 Digestive System

For human biology 2012 RHS
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Digestion
the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
Absorption
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
Mucosa
cells lining the intestinal tract and responsible for absorption of nutrients
submucosa
layer superficial to the mucosa which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
serosa
outer layer or convering of the alimentary canal, made of visceral peritoneum; its function is protection and secretion of serous fluid to reduce friction
Peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
know the three salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
chyme
Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.
gastric juice
a liquid that includes hydrochloric acid and pepsin and that is responsible for the chemical digestion of protein in the stomach
intestinal juice
fluid that intestinal glands secrete, containing digestive enzymes
mesentary
membrane extension of peritoneum that suspends intestines and provides blood and lymphatic vessels
pepsin
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
pepsinogen
inactive form of pepsin
gastrin
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
trypsin
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
peptidase
enzyme that breaks down specific peptide bonds
secretin
hormone produced on duodenum wall that stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralized acid in duodenum
emulsification
process in which bile breaks down fat
know the parts of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
lacteal
A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine
know the parts of the large intestine
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, cecum. appendix, ileocecal valve
know the functions of the large intestine
mucous production, absorb water, break down cellulose, produce Vit K, B12, thiamine, and riboflavin, produce fecal material
cirrhosis
chronic disease charaterized by degeneration of liver tissue most oftern caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
diverticulitis
A digestive disorder in which abnormal pouches form in the walls of the intestine and become inflamed. Inflammation of the small pouch-like sacs full of feces.