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Induces the conversion of PrPc on a cell to PrPsc (acts as a template)
Cell replicates and precipitates more PrPsc
How does PrPsc replicate?
It induces a change in a cell protein to cause the cell to make more PrPsc rather than using DNA
Why is PrPsc replication non conventional?
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
Bovine spongiform encephalopathis - Mad cow
What diseases does PrPsc cause? (3)
Tiny holes appear in cortex - causes mental and physical abilities to deteriorate
What is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
What group of diseases is Creutzfelt Jakob disease a part of?
Illness that causes gradual deterioration of organs and cell
Leads to loss of function
What does degenerative mean?
Infectious agent made up of nucleic acid and a protein coat which is too small to be seen using a light microscope
What are viruses?
DNA or RNA in centre
Nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat
(Sometimes protein coat is surrounded by lipid envelope)
What are the components of a virus? (3)
Nucleic acid type (RNA or DNA)
Single or double stranded
Presence of an envelope
What is the process of classification of viruses? (4)
Herpes simplex (HSV)
Varicella zoster (VZV)
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
Human Herpes Virus (HHV)
What are the 5 main types of herpes virus?
What does cytomegalovirus cause in immunocompromised patients? (4)
What are the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis? (5)
How is Hepatitis B transmitted? (4)
Jaundice (after 1-6month incubation period
What are the symptoms of a hep B infection? (5)
Hep C virus
Give an example of a single stranded RNA virus. (7)
Cox sackie viruses
What are some of the subtypes of picornaviruses? (3)
What do coxsackie viruses cause in humans? (3)
Enlarged lymph nodes
(Later) Rash with pink spots
What are the symptoms of german measles? (5)
Loss of appetite
Aches and pains
What are the symptoms of an infection with influenza? (4)
Middle ear infections
What are people infected with the measles virus susceptible to? (2)
DNA in nucleid
What are the main components of a bacterial cell? (7)
Irregularly shaped region in a prokaryotic cells that
contains the genetic material
It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane
What is a nucleiod?
Sensitivity to oxygen
What characteristics are used in bacterial classification? (5)
Superficial and deep
What types of infections do fungi cause? ...What are the subtypes of this type of infection?
What types of fungi cause superficial mycoses? (4)
What types of fungi cause deep myocoses? (7)
What are the most common ways a protozoa is acquired? (3)
An organism that lives in or on another organism that benefits by depriving nutrients at the hosts expense
What is a parasite?
A tropical, viral, haemorrhagic disease that causes fever and jaundice (affects kidneys and liver)
What is yellow fever?
2 organisms living in close association each benefitting from the other (reciprocal benefit)
What is mutualism?
2 organisms living in close association, one doing damage to the other for its own benefit - unilateral benefit
What is parasitism?
Travel to sites that are normally sterile
Why commensal organisms found the the human body sometimes cause disease?
Ability to make toxins
Ability to invade cells/tissues
Ability to outcompete normal commensal organisms
What are the virulence characteristics of pathogenic organisms? (3)
What normal commensal bacteria are found in the nose? (3)
What normal commensal bacteria are found in the teeth? (5)
Gram negative rods
What normal commensal bacteria are found in the urethra/vagina? (4)
What normal commensal bacteria are found in the throat? (6)
What normal commensal bacteria are found in the skin/feet/scalp/groin/perineum? (10)
What factors influence how many/which types of bacteria grow in certain areas of the body? (6)
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