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Science - Chapter 8
Terms in this set (34)
_____ occurs when running water, ice, or wind break down rocks and carry the pieces away.
The principle of _________ states that the geological processes that operate today also operated in the past.
_________ rocks form when molten material from beneath Earth's surface cools and hardens.
___________ rock is made of sediments that have been deposited and then pressed together to form solid rock.
__________ rock forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
The _______ cycle is a series of processes on and beneath Earth's surface that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
__________, water, wind, and ice break the rock into tiny pieces and carry it away.
The ________ age of a rock is its age compared with the ages of other rocks.
The _________ age of a rock is the number of years since the rock formed.
Geologists use the law of ____________ to determine the relative ages of sedimentary rock layers.
According to the law of superposition, in horizontal __________ rock layers the oldest layer is at the bottom. Each higher layer ia younger than the layer below it.
_____ that hardens on the surface is called an extrusion.
Beneath the surface, ________ may push into bodies of rock. There, the magma cools and hardens into a mass of igneous rock called and ________.
The surface where new rock layers meet a much older rock surface beneath them is called an ___________.
To be useful as an _______ fossil, a fossil must be widely distributed and represent a type of organism that existed only briefly.
When all the _____ of a particular type of matter are the same, the matter is an __________.
Over time, these elements break down, or decay, by releasing particles and energy in a process called _____________.
The _______ of a radioactive element is the time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms to decay.
__________ dating is used to determine the absolute ages of rocks.
Scientists often use _________ to date rocks.
All plants and animals contain some _________, a radioactive form of carbon.
Earth's rocky outer layer consists of more than a dozen major pieces called _______ that fit together like a jigsaw puzzle.
The theory of _____________ states that Earth's plates move slowly in various directions.
Over time, the movement of Earth's plates has affected the _________ of living things.
As the continents move, their _______ may change.
As the climate changes, so do the kinds of __________ that live there.
When populations of organisms become widely separated, their _________ makeup may change in different ways.
The __________ time scale is a record of the life forms and geologic events in Earth's history.
Geologic time begins with a long span of time called __________ Time.
After Precambrian Time, the basic units of the geologic time scale are ________ and _________.
Scientists have found fossils of single-celled organisms in rocks that formed about _______ billion years ago.
A ________ is an animal with a backbone.
Earth's continents moved together to form a great landmass, or supercontinent, called ____________.
Earth's climate cooled, causing a series of ice ages during the ___________ Period.
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