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Terms from Grivas and Carter, Chapter 12

Classical Conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.


Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936)

Unconditioned Stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response

Neutral Stimulus

a stimulus that before conditioning does not produce a particular response

Unconditioned Response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

Conditioned Response

in classical conditioning, the response elicited by the conditioned stimulus

Conditioned Stimulus

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response


a reaction by an organism to a stimulus.


a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established


in classical conditioning, the process of eliminating the previously acquired association of the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response

Spontaneous Recovery

in classical conditioning the re-occurence of conditioning after it had appeared to be extinct

Stimulus Generalisation

the tendency for another stimulus that is similar to the original CS to produce a response that is similar to the CR

Stimulus Discrimination

The tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another.

Conditioned Reflex

is an automatic response that occurs as the result of previous experience

Conditioned Emotional Response

An emotional response that has been linked to a previously non emotional stimulus by classical conditioning

Aversion Therapy

any technique of behavior modification that uses unpleasant stimuli in a controlled fashion to alter behavior in a therapeutic way

Systematic Desensitisation

a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety

One Trial Learning

a special case of classical conditioning that only requires one experience for the association to be made between a CR and CS.

Taste Aversion

A classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food.

Garcia Effect

conditioned taste aversion

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