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Google

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Slide 1
Google Inc. is a remarkable company that benefits all of us. It's an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. It would be an understatement to say that Google hasn't had a great impact on the worldwide successful companies that boom with business, the way people from all different countries communicate with one another, and the way of life of millions.
Slide 2
We might not realize this at times, but Google has an impact on all of us; whether we are just sitting at home doing research for a science project, or if we're looking for a recipe for brownies. Can you imagine what life would be like without Google to this day?
Slide 3
Google is the most well-known search engine- people consider Google to be very reliable. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising through a program called "AdWords".
Slide 4
Let's go back in time and talk about the history of Google.
Slide 5
Google was founded by two men with the names Larry Page and Sergey Brin and they were often known as the "Google Guys" while both of them were at Stanford University as PhD candidates.
Slide 6
Larry Page, who is now 39 years old, had always wanted to become an inventor. When he was 12, he read a biography on Nikola Tesla, a prodigious inventor who discovered the foundational technologies for an astonishing time of innovations, from wireless communication and X rays, to solar cells and the modern power grid. Larry Page said 20 years later about Tesla that, "I realized Tesla was the greatest inventor, but he didn't accomplish as much as he should have. I realized I wanted to invent things, but I also wanted to change the world." Page holds a Bachelor of science in computer engineering from the University of Michigan with honors and a Master of Science in computer science from Stanford university.
Slide 7
Sergey Brin, who is now 38 years old, was born in Moscow, Russia and grew up in the states. He's Jewish, along with his parents, and both of his parents seem to be very smart; his father is a mathematics professor at the University of Maryland, and his mom is a research scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. He earned his undergraduate degree at the University of Maryland, following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps by studying mathematics, as well as computer science. After graduation, he decided to move to Stanford University to acquire a PhD in computer science.
Slide 8
Larry met Sergey in the summer of 1995, before he had decided to accept Stanford's offer of admission. The two met on the streets of San Francisco. Sergey was a second-year student known to be gregarious, and had signed up to be a student guide of sorts- his role that day was to show a group of first-years around the City by the Bay. Larry happened to be in his group, and his first impression of Sergey was that he was very obnoxious and that he had very strong opinions, which didn't appeal to Larry. As the tour went on, the two bickered and argued incessantly, debating the value of various approaches to urban planning, among other things. Even though they weren't sure if they necessarily liked each other yet, they were drawn together, and soon after, Larry accepted the offer from Stanford.
Slide 9
Both Sergey Brin and Larry Page knew what they were getting into when they accepted admission into Stanford University's graduate school of computer science. Stanford is well known worldwide for its strong mix of academic excellence and corporate lucre. After all, Stanford University has spawned Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Yahoo, and Excite.
Slide 10
Google got started in January of 1996 as a research project by the two. At the time, while conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, both Larry and Sergey theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites, and they called this new technology "PageRank", where a website's relevance was determined by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the original site. The two originally nicknamed their new search engine, "Back Rub", because the system also checked backlinks (which are incoming links, inbound links, inlinks, and inward links) to estimate the importance of the site.
Slide 11
The company was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4, 1998, and its initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. At that time, Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt (an American software engineer and the current executive chairman of Google) agreed to work together at the company for 20 years (which is until the end of 2024).
Slide 12
Eventually, they changed the name to Google, which came from a misspelling of the word "googol", the number "1" followed by one hundred zeroes. The name was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large amounts of information for people. Originally, Google ran under the Stanford University website, and the name of it was called google.stanford.edu
Slide 13
Google was based in a friend's garage (her name was Susan Wojcicki) in Menlo Park, California.
Slide 14
Soon before long, the name "Google had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English dictionary, denoted as "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet." Google has come a long way, and I think the fact that they have their own term in the dictionary is saying a lot.
Slide 15
In 2006, the company moved to its current headquarters, which is Mountain View, California. From then, Google's rapid growth since its incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond the company's core web search engine.
Slide 16
So now let's talk about the financing and initial public offering of Google. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolscheim, who is co-founder of Sun Microsystems, and he gave this money before Google was even incorporated.
Slide 17
Early in the year 1999, while still graduate students, Sergey Brin and Larry Page came to the conclusion that the search engine they had developed was taking up too much time of their time from academic pursuits. Therefore, they went to Excite's CEO, George Bell, and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. Unfortunately, he rejected the offer, and when Vinod Khosla (one of Excite's venture capitalists) negotiated Brin and Page down to $750,000 he was thrown out of office.
Slide 18
On June 7, 1999 a $25 million round of funding was announced with major investors including the venture capital firms called Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.
Slide 19
Google's initial public offering took place five years later on August 19th, 2004. Google offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. Shares were sold in a very unique online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse underwriters for the deal. The sale of $.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion, and it is also known that the vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires!
Slide 20
Yahoo!, one of Google's competitors, also benefited because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google before the initial public offering took place.
Slide 21
Many people thought that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in company culture, and the reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires, like Google. Page's and Brin's response to this concern was to promise in a report to potential investors that the IPO wouldn't change the company's culture. In 2005 however, articles in The New York Times and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy (their unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil"). In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Direct of Human Resources. The purpose of a Chief Culture Officer is so that the company develops and maintains the culture, and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on (which was a flat organization with a collaborative environment).
Slide 22
After the IPO, the stock's performance was doing well, with shares hitting $700 for the first on October 31, 2007, mostly because of strong sales and earning in the online advertising market. The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors (as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds). We know can find the company listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG and under the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1.
Slide 23
The company offers many different things that are used throughout our daily life; such as online productivity soft wares, the Gmail e-mail service, the Google Docs office suite, and the Google+ social networking service.
Slide 24
Also, Google's products extend to the desktop of laptops as well with applications such as Google Chrome web browser, the Picasa photo organizing and editing software, and the Google Talk instant messaging application.
Slide 25
In addition, Google leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, as well as the Google Chrome OS browser-only operating system, found on specialized laptops that are called Chromebooks.
Slide 26
Google has been estimated to run over one million servers in data centers around the world, and process over one billion search request and about twenty-four petabytes (a petabyte is equal to one quadrillion bytes, or 1000 terabytes) of user-generated data everyday!
Slide 27
Google also ranks number 2 in the BrandZ brand equity database. The dominant market position of Google's services has let to loads of criticism of the company- over issues including censorship, copyright, and privacy and other kinds of things such as energy consumption, search within a search, tax avoidance, and so forth. The picture at the bottom goes back to not so long ago, when there was the SOPA blackout, and blocking out Google's logo was Google's way of protesting against Congress censoring the web.
Slide 28
In May of the year 2011, unique visitors of Google exceeded the 1 billion mark for the first time, an 8.4% increase from a year ago with 931 million unique visitors.
Slide 29
Now let's talk about Google's acquisitions and partnerships. There are exactly 106 of them. Since 2001, Google as acquired many companies, but their man focus is on small venture capital companies. In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc. The start-up company developed a product called "Earth View" which gives you a 3-D view of the Earth. Google then renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005.
Slide 30
Two years later, Google bought the online video site titled Youtube for $1.65 billion in stock. On April 13th, 2007 Google agreed to acquire DoubleClick (which develops and provides Internet and serving services) for $3.1 billion. This had given Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.
Slide 31
Later on throughout that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral (which is a telecommunications service) for $50 million. The site was then renamed to Google Voice.
Slide 32
On August 5, 2009, Google decided to buy out its 1st public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million. They also bought Aardvark, a social network search engine, for $50 million.
Slide 33
In April of 2010, Google announced it had bought a hardware startup, Agnilux. In addition to the many companies Google has purchased, the company has also partnered with other organizations for everything from research to advertising.
Slide 34
In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center in order to build 1,000,000 square feet of offices, and those offices would then be used for research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry.
Slide 35
Google also began a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October of 2005 in order to help share and distribute each other's technologies. The company even partnered with AOL of Time Warner, so that they could enhance each other's video search services. Google's 2005 partnerships also included Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson.
Slide 36
Google Inc. currently owns and operates actively 11 different data centers- one in South Carolina, Georgia, Oregon, Finland, Belgium, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and so forth. (The ones shown above are in Georgia and Hong Kong).
Slide 37
Advertising is definitely one of Google's strong points in today's world. 99% of Google's revenue is derived from its advertising programs. Using technology from DoubleClick, Google can easily determine user interests and target advertisements so they are relevant to their context and the user that is viewing them. Google Analytics allows website owners to be able to track where and how people use their website.
Slide 38
Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through either a cost-per-click or a cost-per-view kind of scheme. Then there's the sister service, Google AdSense, which allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website, and earn money every time ads are clicked!
Slide 39
Even though there are many advantages to GoogleAds, there are also many disadvantages. One of the disadvantages and criticisms of this program is Google's inability to combat click fraud, which is when a person or automated script "clicks" on advertisements without being interested in the product, which causes that advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. In the year of 2006, industry reported that 14-20% of clicks were fraudulent or invalid. (For those of you who have a Tumblr, you may notice that some blogs have links on their page and they ask people to click them because it makes them money).
Slide 40
There has also been controversy over Google's "search within a search", which is when a secondary search box enables the user to find what they are looking for within a certain website. It was then reported that when performing a search within a search for a specific company, advertisements from competing and rival companies often showed up along with those results, drawing users away from the site they were originally trying to find.
Slide 41
Another complaint against Google's advertising is its censorship or advertisers, though many cases compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. For instance, in February of 2003 Google decided to stop showing the advertisements of a non-profit organization protesting a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices called Oceana. Google cited its editorial policy at the time and said that Google doesn't accept advertising if the ad or site advocates against other individuals, groups, or organizations. Although, that policy was later changed.
Slide 42
In June 2008, Google came to an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. The alliance between the two companies was never really realized due to antitrust concerns by the U.S. Department of justice, as a result, Google pulled out of this deal in November of 2008.
Slide 43
Then Google launched a website called Demo Slam which was made to advertise its own products. Demo Slam was developed in order to demonstrate technology demos of Google products. Each week, two teams were able to compete at putting Google's technology into new contexts.
Slide 44
Google Search, the web search engine, is definitely the company's most popular service! According to market research published by comScore in November of 2009, Google is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6% (Yahoo is #2 for search engine at 15.5%).
Slide 45
Google indexes billions of web pages, in order for users to be able to search for the information they wish, through the use of keywords and operators. The search engine itself was given a little criticism here and there but in spite of that the basic search engine has spread to specific services as well, including an image search engine, the Google News search site, Google Maps, and so on.
Slide 46
In early 2005, the company launched Google Video, which allows users to upload, search, and watch videos from the Internet. In 2009 however, uploads to Google Video were discontinued so that Google would be able to focus more on the search aspect of the service.
Slide 47
The company even developed something called Google Desktop, which is a desktop search application used to search for files on one's computer. The most recent development in search is Google's partnership with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and this was used to create Google Patents. Google patents enables free access to different kinds of information about patents and trademarks.
Slide 48
Now let's switch gears and talk about Google Books. One of the more controversial search services Google hosts is known to be Google Books. The company decided to begin by scanning books and uploading limited previews. Full books were allowed into its new book search engine. The Authors Guild, which is a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed a class action suit in a New York City federal court against Google in 2005 over this new service. In response, Google said that it is in compliance with all existing and historical application of copyright laws regarding books. The company then reached a revised settlement in 2009 to limit its scans to books from the U.S, the UK, Australia, and Canada.
Slide 49
In competition with Amazon.com, Google plans to sell digital versions of the latest books.
Slide 50
Google's productivity tools is another thing this successful company has released over the years.
Slide 51
An example of one of their productivity tools would be Gmail. Gmail is a free webmail service that was launched as an invitation-only beta program on April 1st of 2004, and it became available to the general public of February 7th in 2007. The service was upgraded from beta status on July 7th of 2009, and at that time they had 146 million users monthly. This service was well known for being the first online e-mail service with one gigabyte of storage, and the first to keep emails from the same conversations together in one thread, similar to something like an Internet forum. One criticism of Gmail has been the potential for data disclosure, a risk associated with many online web applications.
Slide 52
Google docs, another part of Google's productivity tools (and one that we happen to use almost everyday here at Trinity), is an application that allows users to do things such as create, edit, and collaborate on documents in an online environment. The service was originally called Writely, but was acquired by Google on March 9th in 2006 (and this was when it was released as an invitation-only preview).
Slide 53
After that acquisition, on June 6th Google created an experimental spreadsheet- editing program which would be combined with Google Docs later on October 10th. A program made in order to edit presentations would complete this set on September 17th of 2007- before all three services were taken out of beta along with Gmail, Google Calendar, and all the other products from the Google Apps Suite on July 7th of 2009.
Slide 54
Not only are those productivity tools very important but there are also other products too that might not seem as significant, but still play a huge roll when we need them. For example, Google Translate is a server-side machine translation service, which translates 35 different languages. Browser extensions allow for easy access to Google Translate from the browser itself. Also, you might notice that on the translated text, there is a feature called "suggest a better translation" which allows users to indicate whether the current translation is incorrect or otherwise inferior to another translation.
Slide 55
Google also launched a service called Google News, and this site is able to offer a news service compiled solely by computer algorithms without human intervention. Google doesn't employ editors, managing editors, or executive editors. The site hosts less licensed news content than Yahoo! News, and instead presented topically selected links to news and opinion pieces along with reproductions of their headlines, story leads, and even photographs. The photographs tend to be reduced to thumbnail size and they're placed next to headlines from other news sources on the same topic in order to minimize copyright infringement in federal court in the District of Columbia (which was a cause when Google decided and settled for an undisclosed amount in an agreement that included a license of the full text of AFP articles for use on Google News
Slide 56
Google Wave is another of the many products Google has come out with, and it is designed to help users communicate and collaborate on the web. The service is Google's "email redesigned" with real time editing, the ability to embed audio, video, and other media, and extensions that further enhance the communication experience.
Slide 57
Now let's talk about Google's corporate affairs and culture. Google is known for having an informal corporate culture. In the magazine called Fortune, the list of best companies to work for, ranked Google as 1st in 2007 and 2008 and ranked them as 4th in 2009 and 2010. Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world's most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google's corporate philosophy embodies such casual beliefs- one being, "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun."
Slide 58
And these are just a few interesting facts about Google...
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