Retrograde amnesia results in a loss of memory of events that occurred...
before a head injury
Retrograde amnesia results from damage to ______ areas in the ______ ______.
association areas in the cerebral cortex
Retrograde amnesia is also called ______ ______ or ______ memory.
domain specific, remote memory
Anterograde amnesia is the inability to...
form new memories
Anterograde amnesia results from damage to the ______ or ______ lobe.
hippocampus or temporal lobe
What disease process is anterograde amnesia seen in?
Anterograde amnesia is also called ______ ______ or ______ memory.
domain independent, recent memory
Executive attention deficits involve the inability to maintain ______ ______, ______ ______ or recognize when an ______ meets a ______.
sustained attention, set goals, object, goal
People with executive attention deficits are unable to remember...
instructions and info needed to guide behavior
Executive attention deficits result from ______ and ______ or indirect destruction due to ______. They can also result from the effects of ______ and ______.
ischemia, hypoxia, compression, toxins, chemicals
Executive attention deficits involve the ______, as well as the ______ and ______ networks which are essential to cognitive function.
midbrain, memory and language
Agnosia is a defect of ______ ______.
Agnosia may affect the domains of ______, ______, or ______, but it usually only affects one domain.
tactile, visual, auditory
A person with agnosia is unable to recognize/identify objects due to injury to the ______ cortex.
What is an example of tactile agnosia?
patient closes eyes, put a key in their hand, unable to recognize it
inability to identify well-known faces
impaired music interpretation
aphasia vs. dysphagia
aphasia is a LOSS of comprehension/production of language, whereas dysphagia is IMPAIRMENT
What does dysphagia result from?
damage to part of the left cerebral hemisphere
Dysphagia types are classified ______, ______ or the character of ______.
anatomically, functionally, speech
What are the three types of dysphagias?
expressive, receptive, transcortical
Expressive dysphagia is primarily a deficit of ______. ______ ______ deficit may also be present but usually is relatively intact.
expression, verbal comprehension deficit
Expressive dysphagia is also called ______ dysphagia or ______ dysphagia.
Broca dysphagia, motor dysphagia
A person with receptive dysphagia can produce verbal language but it is ______. This is also called ______ or ______ dysphagia.
meaningless, Wernicke or sensory dysphagia
A person with transcortical dysphagia has an inability to ______. They may range from ______ and producing little speech to ______ with impaired ability for ______.
repeat. nonfluent, fluent, naming
acute confusional states
Acute confusional states can be secondary to ______ ______, ______ disorder, or ______ system disease.
drug intoxication, metabolic disorder, nervous system disease
The onset of an acute confusional state can be ______, or ______, but it is usually ______.
sudden, gradual, abrupt
acute mental status
Acute confusional states may be caused by disruption of the neural network in ______ and projections into the ______, ______ ______, ______ or ______ areas.
RAS, thalamus, basal ganglion, cortex, limbic areas
Acute confusional states may be seen as ______, because the person may have grossly altered interpretations of ______, possibly including ______. They may also be ______.
delirium, reality, hallucinations, incoherent
What is the function of the forebrain?
to put all of our thoughts together
AMS usually functions as a ______ diagnosis when we are unsure of what's going on with a patient.
Dementia is a ______ failure of ______ functions that is not caused by an impaired level of ______.
progressive, cerebral, consciousness
Dementia can occur due to...
degeneration, compression, atherosclerosis, and trauma
What are the two classifications of dementia?
Dementia is not ______. The treatment of it seeks to maximize use of remaining ______ and______.
curable, capacities and functions
The symptoms of dementia begin ______. They include a loss of both ______ and ______ memory.
insidiously. recent and remote
What are the two types of Alzheimer's? Which is most common?
late onset familial Alzheimer dementia AND non-hereditary or sporadic late-onset AD (more common)
All theories of Alzheimer's include a ______ being affected.
The theories of what causes Alzheimer's include a mutation for encoding ______ ______ protein, alteration in ______ ______ and loss of neurotransmitter stimulation of ______ ______, and ultimately ______.
amyloid precursor protein, apolipoprotein E, choline acetyltransferase, Ach
What is evident in the brain of a person with Alzheimer's?
A person with Alzheimer's will have "______ ______," which are area of ______ which disrupt nerve-impulse transmission.
senile plaques, degeneration
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's?
forgetfullness, emotional upset, disorientation, confusion, lack of concentration, decline in abstraction, problem solving and judgement
The movements associated with Huntington disease typically begin in the _____ and _____ and eventually affect...
face and arms. entire body
In hypokinesia, the person is _____, has normal _____ _____ and _____ function but has decreased _____.
conscious, peripheral nerve and muscle, movement
decrease in associated and voluntary movements
In bradykinesia, there is a slowness of _____ movements. Movements become slow and _____.
What does loss of associated movement mean?
loss of grace, skill, and balance to voluntary movements
A person with a loss of associated movement may also have an _____ face, an absence of speech _____ or _____ gestures.
expressionless, inflection, spontaneous
What two types of hypokinesia does a person with Parkinson Disease have?
bradykinesia (can't get started when walking) and akinesia (face)
Parkinson disease results from...
a degeneration of the dopaminergic pathway
Degeneration of the dopaminergic pathway in Parkinson Disease causes _____ depletion in the _____ _____ and excess _____ activity in the feedback circuit.
dopamine, basal ganglia, cholinergic
Symptoms of Parkinson Disease include: _____ (tremor and rigidity), _____ of the face, Parkinsonian tremor at _____, Parkinsonian _____ (muscle stiffness), Parkinsonian _____ (poverty of movement) and postural disturbance (characteristically _____).