117 terms

C179 Study Guide - Fill in the Blanks

Data is _______ _________ without further meaning.
raw facts
Information is data that an Information System (IS) has ________________ into meaningful information.
Good Information Chracteristics
Accurate (free from errors),
Timely (available when needed),
Relevant (appropriate),
Sufficient (the right amount),
Cost-Effective (cost doesn't outweigh benefits).
Two types of Information decisions
Structured - follows a formula
Unstructured - possibly several answers would work
Managerial Information Systems
Executive - highly summarized
Managerial - tactical decision making based upon Exec.
Operational - Structured, detailed
Five Component Parts in Information System
Hardware, Software, Data, Procedures, People
(Howard, Saw, Dana, Poke, Peter)
Information Granularity
Course - Highly Summarized, usually a report.
Fine - Highly detailed useful for low level managers
3 Roles in Information Systems
Computer User - Basic, can operated the system
Super User - Understands the IS and how it works
Expert User - Can operate, train and convert old to new
Business Process
is a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources and flows (series of steps) that interact to accomplish a business function.
Fully Automated Process
network of IS takes inventory, reduces stock, tracks buying trends and identifies times to reorder. (Walmart)
Partially Automated Process
Staff counts inventory, inputs inventory in spreadsheet or data collection tool and executes a purchase electronically. (small grocery)
Fully Manual Process
items manually weighed, sold, and verbally providing the customer the price. (Farmers Market)
Business Process Engineering Phases
Create As-Is, Create Components, Implement Process, Assess Results
Business Process Engineering - Phase 1
Create an As-Is Model. Ensures understanding of the Current Process
Business Process Engineering - Phase 2
Create the Components (Hw, Sw, Data, Proc. People)
Business Process Engineering - Phase 3
Implement the processes, which should be more efficient, streamlines, and easier than the old process.
Business Process Engineering - Phase 4
Assess the results, to monitor the effectiveness of the new processes.
Process Modeling
a graphic representation, using process modeling notation, of how data flow and how activities are related in an organization.
Process Modeling Symbol - Rectangle
Process Modeling Symbol - Diamond
Decision / Gateway
Process Modeling Symbol - Page
Process Modeling Symbol - Dashed Line
Data Flows
Process Modeling Symbol - Solid Line
Control Flows
Components of the Business Process
Activities, Resources, Facilities, Data Flows
What are Facilities
storage areas (warehouses or Databases)
Organizational Strategy
the alignment of a companies planning, decisions, and actions to enable it to reach its goals, mission, objectives
2 reasons why organizations create information systems
1. obtain its goals, objectives or mission.
2. solve a major problem or meet a challenge
Michael Porter's Five Forces Model - Reasons
1. better understand the industry
2. determine how attractive the prospect of starting a business in a given industry.
3. how to conduct a successful business in a given industry
Porter's Five Forces 1
Porter's Five Forces 2
Threat of Substitution -
Porter's Five Forces 3
Customer Bargaining Power - customer influence
Porter's Five Forces 4
Supplier's Power - influence from a supplier
Porter's Five Forces 5
Threat of New Entrant
Porter's Generic Strategies Model Reasoning
1. Businesses leverage their strengths to select the strategy for best success
2. identify the best way to operate
Porter's Generic Strategies 1
Broad Cost Leadership - Across a industry
Porter's Generic Strategies 2
Broad Differentiation - Unique
Porter's Generic Strategies 3
Narrow Cost Leadership
Porter's Generic Strategies 4
Narrow Differentiation
Broad Cost Leadership Strategy
reduced overall production/distribution cost, and appeal to cost-conscious customers. Lower prices (maintaining value (cost/quality)
Broad Differentiation Strategy
products stand out, customers willing to pay premium price. Focus on satisfying under-served needs.
Narrow Cost Leadership Strategy
focus on cost behavior on a smaller segment (southwest - only in certain markets and one type of aircraft)
Narrow Differentiation Strategy
focus on one market segment (ferrari targets high performance car enthusiasts)
Value Chain
network of value creating activities with primary activities that create value and secondary activities that indirectly contribute to value creation
Value Chain - Primary Activites
Inbound Logistics, Operations, Outbound Logistics, Marketing and Sales, Service
Value Chain - Secondary Activities
Procurement, Human Resources, Technological Development, Infrastructure
Advantages using Value Chain Analysis
Identify inefficiencies, enhancing activities, modifying activities, identifying weak information systems
Approaching an IS using Porter's model - steps
1. Five Forces - understanding of the forces the company faces in the industry
2. generic strategies - organization develop the best way to compete.
3. Value Chain - enables the org to break down processes to look for opportunities.
Tasks to Determine Requirements - System Development
1. Cooperate
2. Identify Expectations
3. Examine Previous Work
4. Ask Questions
The _____ a project the harder it is to change
Budgeting Factors - Tools to Determine System Cost
Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost Projection
Examining Past Projects and their Costs
Outsourcing Advantages
1. Management Advantage
2. Cost Reduction (initially)
3. Risk Reduction (initially)
Outsourcing Disadvantages
1. Loss of Control
2. Benefits eventually outweighed by overall cost
3. No Easy Exit
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
a rigid, phased approach to system development. Usually offers a high chance for success.
Tools in System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)`
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) - outline view of tasks ordered by phases.
Gantt Chart - displays tasks and dependencies
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Strengths
1. Able to monitor and maintain control over large projects
2. detailed phases
3. Good documentation
4.Great input into requirements
5. Easy System Maintenance
6. Staff changes do not impact development
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Weaknesses
1. Longer Development time
2. Higher Cost
3. needs well-defined systems at the beginning
4. Rigid Process
5. difficulty estimating scheduling and budgeting
6. Limited user input
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases
Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementing, Maintenance
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phase 1
- define the scope
- conduct feasibility studies
- form a project team
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phase 2
- identify system requirements
- identify system object requirements
- identify system security requirements
- identify personnel procedures
- create a data model
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phase 3
- HW
- SW
- DB
- Create job descriptions
- Create system procedures
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phase 4
- Build the system
- test the system
- - - Unit Test
- - - User Test
- Conversion
- - - Parallel
- - - Pilot
- - - Plunge
- Training
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phase 5
- Resolve request for revisions
- Addressing reported problems
- Issuing Patches
building a preliminary model of a proposed finished system / temporary systems that don't include all functionality
Prototyping advantages
1. Development time / cost is reduced
2. Systems likely to fulfill user requirements
3. User involvement provide valueable feedback
4. Users adapt easily to finished system
Prototyping Disadvantages
1. Users use prototypes as final systems
2. Documentation is incomplete
3. expectations are high and lead to disappointment of final system
4. prototyping can not accommodate large amounts of users
Prototyping Steps
1. Identify
2. Develop
3. Test
4. Refine
Prototyping is an __________ approach
Object Orientated Development (OOD) is _________ System
ability to appear in different forms (object appearing as a subobject)
act of storing data and procedures together in an object
allows an object to inherit properties from objects in different classes
collections of similar objects that can contain subclasses
entities that can interact with one another
Object Orientated Development (OOD) Advantages
1. Code is modified easily using other objects
2. objects are reusable
3. objects are modular
4. Security is easy to set in program code
Object Orientated Development (OOD) Disadvantages
1. Code is difficult to read and understand
2. OOD is ineffective at representing non-objects
3. it takes longer to execute routines
4. fewer functions
5. not user friendly
6. extensive evaluation and monitoring
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
a methodology that enables a rapid development process for systems while maintaining an acceptable level of quality.
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Qualities
- Accomplished in small groups
- prototyping and iterative testing
- reuses software components
- uses visual programming
- 80/20
Rapid Application Development (RAD) develops softaware by ________ and ________ existing software components into a new system
assembling, integrating (Component based Development)
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Life Cycle
1. Requirements Planning
2. User Design
3. Construction
4. Implementation
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Advantages
1. Good when scope is limited
2. Good when requirements are not complex
3. Quick response
4. Flexible
5. Extensive User Participation
6. Fast
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Disadvantages
1. less scalable, may not contain all the features
2. more costly
3. quality problems
4. needs not adequately met
5. less efficient
6. Prone to Problems
Agile Systems Methodology Advantages
1. breaks tasks into small increments with minimal planning -no long term planning
2. Iterations are short time frames (1-to 4 weeks)
- - Each iteration involve planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, unit testing, and acceptance testing.
3. Small crossfunctional teams
4. Face to Face communications / Stand-Up Meetings
5. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
6. More adaptive to project changes than predictive.
Agile Systems Methodology is based on...
iterative and incremental development.
Extreme Programming (XP) is
customer-driven, agile process
Extreme Programming (XP) response well to changes because....
of checkpoints that enable customer feedback and review
Extreme Programming (XP) 12 core practices
1. Customer Defines application with User Stories
2. XP team puts small code into production
3. xp use common system names and descriptions
4. simply written, object orientated code meets requirements
5. wirtes automated uint tests upfront uses through out the process.
6. frequent revise and edit of unit code (Refactoring)
Extreme Programming (XP) 12 core practices (part 2)
7. Pair Programming
8. Collective Ownership of code
9. integrate code and save to repository every couple hours
10. programmers work full time
11. Customer Rep onsite through out development
12. common coding structure
Extreme Programming (XP) Phases
1. Planning
2. Designing
3. Coding
4. Testing
5. Listening
Please, Don't, Chew, The, Line
XP Advantages
1. A focus on Programming code for quick delivery of features
2. A quality methodology for smaller systems, resulting in low cost compared with other methodologies
3. Simple design, because each feature is coded, tested, and implemented independent of other functionalities
4. Continuous testing for ensuring quality feature development
5. Robustness, because each feature is listed along with a cost estimate for organizations to rank feature development
6. Resilience, because changes can be made late in the system's development life cycle, incorporated into development, and used without going back to an earlier phase as in other methodologies
7. Reduced risk in Programming and coding because two programmers work on each feature: one writing code and one testing it
8. High employee satisfaction because of users' intense involvement during the entire development process
9. The ability to add features at any time during the development process without negatively affecting development
XP Disadvantages
1. Scant documentation because of the lack of design-centered approach usually followed in larger systems development projects
2. The potential for user conflicts to bog down the development when agreements are hard to reach
3. Unstable requirements because of the lack of a formal requirements analysis before design and Programming are done
4. Limited overall design specifications because features are designed as needed.
5. Methodology geared toward single projects; not good for large projects
6. Does not work well when scalability issues exist because they cannot be integrated with other programs later
7. Constant contact with the customer is assumed, which can be difficult to ensure if users are ambivalent or do not want to be a part of the development team
Systems-Type Audit
ensures an org system and applications are appropriate and contrlled to maintain security and reliability
Process-Type Audit
includes a risk analysis of new and existing projects to determine how organizations compare
Successful management of IS......
1. keeps systems from being obsolete
2. integrating systems to avoid duplication
3. strategic approach
4. data integrity without duplication, inconsistencies and errors
Chief Information Officer (CIO)
highest ranking exec, responsible for all IS within the org.
IS Departments
Technology, Operations, Development Outsourcing, Data Admin
IS (or IT) departments responsible for...
User ID, Granting access and permissions, ensuring systems have data integrity, managing the security of data.
Ethics are...
moral guidelines in organizations.
2 questions in ethics
1. was harm done to anyone
2. did someone gain an undeserved advantage from the behavior.
Approaches to Managing Ethics
1. Informal Approach - address as occurs
2. General Written Procedures
3. Written Code of Ethics
4. Top down Ethics Approach
Important Steps in Promoting Ethics
1. Inform employees about policies and procedures
2. incorporate ethics in all areas of the organization
3. train employees how to recognize unethical behavior
4. help avoid circumstances
5. Hold Formal Training
Threats to Information System
1. Unintentional
2. intentional
Types of Threats
1. Natural
2. Human
3. Environmental
4. Physical
5. Technical
Aspects to consider in a security plan
1. Hardware Security
2. Software Security
3. Data Security
4. People Security
Physical Safegards
1. ID Badges
2. Cubical Design
3. Shredder
Acts of Congress that require Data backups
1. Sarbanes-Oxley Act
3. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)
Types of Media for Backups
1. Optical
2. Semiconductor
3. Magnetic
4. Cloud
Organizations spend ____% of their IT budget on disaster recovery
Disaster Recovery Plans (DRP) Objectives
1. decrease risk of disaster
2. decrease probability of disaster
3. decrease insurance premiums
4. protect assets
5. reduce dependencies on human decision making
6. organization stability
7. improve employee safety
Disaster Recovery Plans (DRP) Steps
1. Select DRP Team - entire organization
2. conduct a risk analysis
3. identify recovery options
4. Create a DRP strategy
- - - key contacts
- - - HW / SW considerations
- - - Data Files
- - - Communications and Infrastructure
- - - Org Facilities
- - - Hot / Cold Sites
Types of protected data
1. Business Financial Data
2. Personally Identifiable Information (Customer Data)
Data Safeguards should ensure
1. Confidentiality
2. Integrity
3. Availability
If you are aware / witness a security compromise or breach
1. protect company and customer
2. identify offender
3. limit damage
4. alert customers
5. help in the resolution of security incidents.
6. enable policies and procedures to be effective.
Problem Management Benefits
1. Reduce number of errors/incidents
2. Quality of Service Improves
3. Increased Organizational Knowledge
4. Proactive problem management
work done to resolve issues before they are reported
customer initiates problem solving, contacting customer support
Problem Management Steps -
1. Record
2. Classify / Categorize
3. Check the incident against known issues.
4. Track Progress
5. Provide closure
Change Management Stages
1. Acceptance and Filtering
2. Classification
3. Formal Approval
4. Building, Testing and Implementing
5. Post Implementation Review