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81 terms

Learning, Cognition, Memory, & Language

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Encoding
Process of coding information so that it can b e placed in sensory, short-term, or long-term memory. Three types are acoustic, visual, and semantic.
Acoustic Encoding
Represents the sounds we hear in memory
Visual Encoding
Represents the images we see in memory
Semantic Encoding
Represents the general meaning of experiences
Episodic Memory
Any memory of a specific event that happened while you were present
Semantic memory
contains factual knowledge. Its contents are not associated with a specific event. Ex: knowing that a red light means "stop."
Procedural memory
holds "how-to" methods or processes that usually require some motor movement. Ex: knowing a specific dance or how to shoot a basketball or how to tie a tie
Explicit memory
Purposely trying to remember something
Implicit memory
Subconscious recall or influence of past experiences
Information-processing model
Says that memory has three stages: sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
Levels-of-Processing model
Says that differences in how well something is remembered reflect the degree or depth to which incoming information is mentally processed.
Maintenance Rehearsal
Repeating information over and over, keeping information in short term memory. Ex: saying a phone number over and over.
Elaborative Rehearsal
Involves thinking about how new material is linked or related in some way to information already stored in long-term memory.
Transfer-Appropriate Processing model
Suggests that memory retrieval will be improved if the encoding method matches the retrieval method.
Parallel distributed processing models
Suggest that the connections between units of knowledge are strengthened with experience. Tapping into any connection provides us with access to all the other connections in the network. What we experience is blended into what we already know
Multiple Memory Systems models
Suggests that the brain contains several memory systems, each of which resides in a different area and each of which serves somewhat different purposes
Short Term Memory
Receives information that was perceived in sensory memory. It's quite fragile and will be lost within seconds if not further processed
working memory
part of the memory system that allows us to mentally manipulate information being held in short term memory
immediate memory span
the largest number of items or chunks of information that you can recall perfectly from short term memory after one presentation of the stimuli
long term memory
stage of memory in which the capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited
primacy effect
occurs when we remember words at the beginning a list better than words in the middle of the list
recency effect
occurs when we remember words at the end of a list better than others on a list
retroactive interference
occurs when information in memory is displaced by new information
proactive interference
occurs when old information in long-term memory interferes with the remembering of new information
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury. Memory for experiences prior to the trauma remains intact
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory of events prior to a brain injury. Memories encoded days or years before the injury or trauma can be lost. usually most memories return
mnemonics
encoding methods that increase the efficiency of your memory
Fixed Interval Schedule
when reinforcement is applied within a set period of time
Classical conditioning
Procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response until the neutral stimulus alone elicits a similar response
Latent learning
learning that was not demonstrated at the time that the learning occurred.
Acquisition
The period of the learning experience where the probability of learning increases and where it is measurable and observable
Operant conditioning
learning that occurs when an active learner performs certain behaviors and the consequences of the behavior determine the likelihood of its recurrence
Observational learning
Occurs when people learn by watching others responses and takes place even if others' responses are not rewarded.
Reinforcement
any even that strengthens the behavior that it follows
Secondary reinforcers
Rewards that have acquired meaning by their association with primary reinforcers
Stimulus generalization
When an organism displays a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
Punishment
an aversive consequence that follows a voluntary behavior, thereby decreasing the probability that the behavior will be repeated
Positive reinforcement
Rewards presented after a behavior with the hope of having the behavior repeated
Insight
a sudden grasp of new relationships that are necessary to solve a problem and was not learned in the past
learned helplessness
The feeling of futility and passive resignation that results from the inability to avoid repeated aversive events because the organism believes that behavior is NOT related to the consequences
Variable ratio schedule
reinforcement given after a variable number of behaviors are exhibited
Conditioned stimulus
the stimulus that, after repeated pairings with an UCS, causes a CR that is similar to the UCR.
method of loci
The mnemonic that uses visualization of a path in a familiar location as a means to remember information
serial position effect
Describes the fact that we may remember the FIRST or LAST few words in a list.
Encoding specificity model
this theory says that if the way memory is encoded and the way it is retrieved are similar, remembering the information will be easier. AKA the transfer-appropriate model
Decay
Mechanism whereby information not used in long term memory gradually fades until lost
Peg word
mnemonic process that uses a memorized scheme to associate with new words in a list. (Ex: one is a bun, two is a shoe, etc.)
Intelligence
Those attributes that center around reasoning skills, knowledge of one's culture, and the ability to arrive at innovative solutions to problems.
Stanford-Binet test
a test for determining a person's intelligence quotient, or I.Q.
Intelligence quotient
an index of intelligence that reflects the degree to which a person's score on an intelligence test deviates from the average score of others in the samge age group.
aptitude test
a test designed to measure a person's capacity to learn certain things or perform certain tasks. tests READINESS to learn certain things. Ex: ACT, SAT
Achievement tests
measure what a person has accomplished or learned in a particular area
norm
a description of the frequency at which particular scores occur, allowing scores to be compared statistically
reliability
the degree to which a test can be repeated with the same results
validity
the degree to which test scores are interpreted correctly and used appropriately
General intelligence (g)
Factor that Spearman postulated as accounting for positive correlations between people's scores on all sorts of cognitive ability tests
Special intelligence (s)
A group of special abilities that Spearman saw as ACCOMPANYING g
fluid intelligence
Basic power of reasoning and problem solving
crystallized intelligence
specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence
information processing approach
Approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on mental PROCESSES involved in behavior, not traits--what the psychometric approach uses
triarchic of intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having ANALYTIC, CREATIVE, and PRACTICAL dimensions
multiple intelligences
Eight semi-independent kinds of intelligence postulate by Howard Gardner
divergent thinking
the ability to think along many alternative paths to generate many different solutions to a problem
convergent thinking
the ability to apply logic and knowledge to narrow down the number of possible solutions to a problem or perform some other complex cognitive task
algorithms
a systematic procedure that cannot fail to produce a correct solution to a problem, if a solution exists
heuristics
mental shortcuts or rules of thumb to solve problems
semantics content
rules governing the meaning of words and sentences
phonemes
smallest units of sound that affect the meaning of a word
morphemes
the smallest units of language that have meaning. Ex: un- means "not" and -s means a plural tense
syntax
rules governing how words are combined to make phrases and sentences
Mental Chronometry
timing of mental events
Evoked Brain Potentials
Small, temporary change in EEG voltage that's evoked by a stimulus
Neuroimaging
Using PET scans and fMRI, neuroscientists can now image the brain and see what happens during information processing using this.
Concept
Category of objects, events, or ideas with common properties, such as the way they look or the subjects they contain.
Formal Concepts
set of characteristics that all members have and no nonmembers have
natural concepts
have at least some of the characteristics that define the concept
Propositions
Smallest units of knowledge that can stand as separate assertations
Reasoning
process by which we generate arguments, evaluate them, and reach conclusions
Anchoring Heuristic
estimating probability of an event by adjusting and earlier estimate
Representativeness heuristic
deciding whether a certain example belongs in a class
Availability heuristic
judging the likelihood of an event based on how easily the examples come to mind