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TBPQ2

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Quiz 2
Pharmacology
Which of the following arteries is most appropriate for measuring the pulse of a patient with very low blood pressure
Femoral artery
The diastolic blood pressure is a reflection of
Pressure exerted during left ventricular relaxation
What is an important reason to monitor the heart rate in patients with lung disease
Tachycardia is a common finding when hypoxemia is present
An alternating succession of strong and weak pulses that usually is not related to respiratory disease is known as pulsus
Alternans
Assessing the patient's level of consciousness is important because it
Evaluates the adequacy of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation
Which of the following statements best reflects the importance of comparing changes in vital signs
It allows recognition of the development of a particular problem
If dehydration is suspected in a patient, which of the following parameters should be monitored often
Fluid intake and output
Fever is defined as an
Elevation of body temperature above normal because of disease
Which of the following is not classified as a classic vital sign
Sensorium
Which of the following statements regarding vital signs is most accurate
Vital signs trends are far more important than a single measurement.
Which of the following is not a cause of hypotension
Right heart failure
The normal pulse rate for adults is _____ beats/min
60 to 100
Which of the following scales is the gold standard for assessing trends in the neurological function of patients who have suffered head trauma
Glasgow
The patient's general clinical presentation indicates to the respiratory therapist that the patient is in distress. The respiratory therapists first step should be to
Evaluate the problem quickly and intervene or locate someone to assist the patient
When vital signs are compared with other signs and symptoms to arrive at a conclusion about what is wrong with the patient, this is known as the
Differential diagnosis
A respiratory rate of greater than ____ breaths/min is considered abnormal at any age
60
For every 1 C elevation in body temperature, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production increase by approximately ____%
10
A well-written description of a respiratory therapist's initial observations is beneficial to other healthcare providers because it
Helps them know how to plan care and relate to patient's needs
Which of the following characteristics should be included in the assessment of a patient's pulse
Rate, rhythm, and strength
Which of the following statements is not true about vesicular or normal breath sounds
They are produced when air enters the alveoli
What breathing pattern is associated with fatigue of the diaphragm
Abdominal paradox
Which of the following factors most closely relates to the pitch of a wheeze
The degree of airway compression
What is the common cause of hepatomegaly
Chronic right heart failure
Which of the following is most likely to cause tracheal deviation
Right upper lobe pneumothorax
What disorder is associated with a barrel chest
Emphysema
What disease is most likely to cause a prolonged expiratory time
Asthma
Which of the following is a sign of more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Significant use of accessory muscles at rest
What adventitious breath sounds is most likely to be heard in the patient with croup
Stridor
What problem is associated with nasal flaring
Increased work of breathing
Which of the following is the most common cause of jugular venous disease
Right heart failure
What clinical disorder will cause a unilateral decrease in thoracic expansion
Lobar pneumonia
In patients with severe COPD and hyperinflation, the low, flat diaphragm causes inward movement of the lateral chest walls with inspiration. What is this called
Hoover's sign
Which of the following adventitious lung sounds is related most closely to a life-threatening problem
Stridor
Digital clubbing is associated with
Cystic fibrosis, COPD, bronchogenic carcinoma (all of the above)
What clinical condition is associated with the onset of pedal edema
Right heart failure
Which of the following physical examination findings is associated with myasthenia gravis
Ptosis
What clinical disorder will cause decreased resonance to percussion
Pneumonia
Normal capillary refill is less than ____ second(s)
3
What term describes the sinking inward of the skin overlying the rib cage with each inspiratory effort
Retractions
What problem is associated with cyanosis of the oral mucosa
Reduced arterial oxygenation
What term is used to describe an abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Ascites
The horizontal fissure that separates the right upper lobe from the right middle lobe begins at what rib in the midsternal line
Rib 4
What clinical condition is associated with central cyanosis
Respiratory failure
What change in the heart sounds is associated with cor pulmonale
Loud P2
The listing of a drug and the amount of drug are found in which part of a prescription
Inscription
To find official information about drugs (according to the FDA), you need to go to the
United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF)
Which of the following classes of drug can be aerosolized? I. Antiasthmatic agents II. Adrenergic agents III. Antiinfective agents IV. Mucoactive agents V. Corticosteroids
I, II, III, IV, and V
Drugs can be obtained from which of the following sources
Plants, animals, and minerals
If a drug is ordered with the Latin abbreviation qid, it should be administered
Four times daily
Toxicology studies as well as the effects of a new drug on such organs as the liver and kidneys occur during which step of the drug approval process in the United States
Animal studies
The brand name given to a drug by a particular manufacturer is known as the drug's
Trade name
If a physician desires a drug to be administered as needed, he or she should use which of the following abbreviations
Prn
The advantages of delivering drugs by oral or nasal inhalation include which of the following? I. Aerosol doses are smaller than those administered systemically II. Side effects are usually fewer and severe III. The onset of action is rapid IV. The delivery process is painless, relatively safe, and usually more convenient
I, II, III, and IV
To be sold over-the-counter, a product must be shown to pose virtually no hazard to the consumer
False
The study of drugs, including their origin, properties, and interactions with living organisms, is known as
Pharmacology
Which of the following drug groups are important to respiratory and critical care, although they may not be available in an aerosol form? I. Diuretics II. Antiarrhtymic agents III. Neuromuscular blocking agents IV. Anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents
I, II, III, and IV
A drug's portal entry into the body is known as its
Route of administration
Two different drugs (each with its own mechanism of action) are administered to a patient in an attempt to relieve bronchoconstriction. The ordering physician hopes that the effect of the drug pair will be greater than the sum of the separate effects of each individual drug. If successful, this will be an example of
Synergism
The drug albuterol binds to its corresponding receptor in order to initiate its intended response of bronchodilation. By definition, albuterol is known as a
Agonist
The principal organ for drug metabolism is the
Liver
The proportion of a drug available from the lung, out of total systemically available drug, is known as the
L/T ratio
The relationship between a drug's chemical structure and its clinical activity is known as its
Structure-activity relation
Approximately what percentage of an inhaled aerosol reaches the lower respiratory tract with current delivery devices
10% to 30%
Which of the following factors can increase the lung availability/total systemic availability ratio of inhaled drugs? I. Efficient delivery devices II. Inhaled drugs with a high first-pass metabolism rate III. Mouthwashing IV. Use of a reservoir device
I, II, III, and IV
During which phase of a drug action is a drug made available to the body
Administration
The drug methacholine can stimulate parasympathetic receptors in the airways, causing bronchoconstriction. Epinephrine can stimulate B2 receptors in the airways, causing bronchodilation. These two opposing effects that cancel each other are an example of
Functional antagonism
Inhaled aerosols may have which type(s) of intended effect(s) on the body? I. Entered II. Local III. Systemic IV. Oral
II and III only
Which of the following factors may have an effect on drug absorption? I. Route of administration II. Metabolic degradation III. Inactivation by stomach acids IV. Blood flow to absorption site
I, II, III, and IV
Which of the four major body compartments contains the smallest average volume in liters
Vascular space
Which of the following organs is considered the primary site of drug excretion
Kidney