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Political issues

issues related to gov., conflict-resolution, and decision-making for a group of people

Economic issues

Issues related to money, taxes, and production of goods and services.

Social issues

issues related to culture, work, lifestyle


having to do with one's own homeland


involving other countries


a historic period identified by some prominent figur or characteristic

13 Colonies

original east coast areas settled by Great Britain/England beginning in 1607 that became the original 13 states


people who settle and live in a colony


government process of charging a fee on goods products, people and/or activities



Consent of the governed

idea that people give government its power through the "... just consent of the governed" as stated in the Declaration

[Naval] blockade

to cut off supplies, a military and economic tool used to force a nation or area to suffer shortages and to give up fighting; called naval when ships are used

Great Britain (England)

the "mother country" for the 13 colonies; country we fought against for the independence of the U.S.


a government that elects its leaders

Representative Democracy

A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.

Culture [groups]

way of life and the group(s) that live and represent that way of life

Demographic data

Statistics about the numbers and characteristics of people living in an area

Level(s) of development

refers to the amount and quality of economic and industrial resources, often related to national income

Standard of living

the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.


country with borders and an organized government which freely exercises authority within the borders


relates to trade and how resources and products are divided and allocated

Free-enterprise economic system

the system in the U.S. and other free market economies. It includes economic choice, competition, profit motive, and limited government regulation of the economy.

Command economic system

central government owns most of the means of production in a country and controls most economic decisions

Basic needs

Food, clothing, and shelter(water is food)

Goods and services

goods (things) are products made for sale/barter and services (actions) are products people provide

Subsistence agriculture

growing crops just to support a family and not have any extra (surplus) to sale

Market-oriented agriculture

Growing crops for the commercial sale and distribution to domestic and international buyers.


goods used to produce other goods

Cottage industries

small-scale production requiring little capital

Commercial industries

large-scale production of goods by large companies or corporations


the process of creating commercial industry including heavy industry such as steel


exchange of goods and services

Technological innovations

the introduction of new technology which often changes lifestyle and production


tax on imports and exports; in the U.S., export tariffs are unconstitutional

Protective tariff

a high tariff established to protect a particular industry


goods sold to buyers outside the country


goods bought from sellers in other countries

Geographic context

Ways that geography influences a historical or current event

Cultural diffusion

spread of ideas, technology, religion, language and other cultural practices over time and across space

Physical features

geographic features found in nature such as mountains, lakes

Human features

features of a place made by humans such as roads, canals, buildings...


all things that surround us

Migration patterns

routes of movement for animals or people across or within a given area

Immigration patterns

Routes of human movement from one area/country into another


large area that has common features that set it apart from other areas

Patterns of settlement

describing similarities in the places and ways people move into and stay in a given area

Geographic factors

the human and physical characteristics of a place


individual features of the land such as mountain, hill , valleys or prairie


Individual water features such as oceans, gulf, lake, bayou, and so on

Adaptations to the environment

ways people learn to use and live with their environment. Adaptations might include wearing cooler clothing in hot weather or building adobe house in a dry climate

Modifications to the environment

changes made by people to their surroundings to improve lifestyle


relating to the city, of or in the city


relating to the countryside, of or in the the countryside


smaller community located in the area surrounding a city

Representative government

government where people elect others to speak and act on their behalf


a official change to a law or document of government


to officially approve


power of the President to reject a bill passed by Congress


actions or laws contrary to the constitution as determined by the courts


to declare something to be without power or effect; to disregard the power of something as in the Nullification Crisis


member of a country

Unalienable rights

rights that cannot be taken away or surrendered

Democracy (democratic society)

Form of government in which citizens rule, either directly or by choosing leaders to rule, usually through voting

Limited governments

Type of government where, through law, some control is placed on leadership's power such as a democracy

Unlimited governments

government in which leaders rule without any restrictions such as dictatorship or other totalitarian government


the right to vote and the exercise of that right

Landmark case

Key decisions by the courts that interpret the law such as Brown vs. Board of Education which led to the integration or Marbury vs. Madison which led to judicial review


the lawmaking assembly of Great British (England) and other parliamentary democracies

Primary sources

an original document, artifact, picture, journal, cartoon from the period in which an event occurred or a record from a person who participated in the event

Secondary sources

information that comes from other sources (either primary or secondary) such as a textbook, encyclopedia

Historical context

the historical setting for an event or a primary source

Frame of reference

the perspective from which a person views historical or current issues and events


slanted coverage or one-sided information about an event; prejudiced information


Putting things logical order; using chronological order to organize events based on dates


declaration of Independence signed on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia by delegates to the Second Contiental Congress


U.S Constitution written by delegates to the constitutional convention met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation and decided to draft a new plan of government for the U.S


The American Civil War fought over the issues of slavery, states' right, and economic and sectional differences between the North and the South

Thomas Jefferson

wrote declaration of independence, colonial leader, 3rd President

George Washington

leader of the Continental Army during the revolution; president of the constitutional convention and the first president of U.S

Issues causing the Revolution

No taxation without representation, colonial protest against British polices and taxes; battles at Lexington/concord

Declaring Independence

Grievances listed against king George III of England declaring the AMERICAN colonies independent. written in Philadelphia by Thomas Jefferson, July 4, 1776

Growth of representative institutions

The Virginia House of Burgess 1st representative Govt assembly in colonies
Mayflower Compact- document outlining principles of self government.
Fundamental Order of Connecticut- one of the first written constitutions in the colonies.

Magna Carta 1215

signed in England, this document provided limits to the power of the king

English Bill of Rights 1689

English Bill of Rights (1689): Repeats some of early docs (trials and say in taxes), but added right free speech in parliament, to bear arms, no cruel and unusual punishment, and no Catholic king.

Declaration of Independence 1776

Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.

Articles of Confederation 1781

First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.

U.S. Constitution 1787 ratified 1789

Set up government as a federalism system and established constitutional democracy

Bill of Rights 1791

The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

Limited Government

In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.


the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power


the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government

Popular sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government

Separation of powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Legislative Branch- elected representatives who make or enact laws; Congress at the federal level
Executive Branch- elected and appointed individuals who enforce laws; at the federal level the President heads this branch
Judicial Branch- justices (judges) who interpret the law (through the courts); at the federal level the U.S Supreme Court is the highest court of this branch

Individual rights

Theses are protected by the Bill of Rights and include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.

States Rights

based on a broad interpretation of the 10th amendment, states rights was the idea that states had the right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the federal government by the specific words of the constitution. it was used by (mostly) southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify (ignore) federal laws they did not agree with. states rights became a leading cause of the Civil War as Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the U.S. and formed the Confederate of America in 1861

Nullification Crisis

Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.

13th Amendment

declares slavery illegal in the U.S.

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude. This applied to male citizens over the age of 21.

16th Amendment

creates federal income tax provision. this was an amendment strongly supported by the Progressive Reformers.

17th Amendment

provides for direct election of US senators, another amendment supported by the Progressive

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote

24th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections. Part of the Civil Rights legislation of 1964.

26th Amendment

extends the right to vote to 18 years old.




World War I


Stock market Crash in October of 1929 led the U.S. into the Great Depression of the 1930's


The years of U.S. involvement in World War II began in Europe in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland, which began with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and ended with the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Gilded Age 1876-1900

Era of westward expansion and industrialization.

Progressive and Reform Era 1900-1919

Progressive wanted to reform American life and improve political, social, and economics conditions for workers, farmers, urban middle class, women, children and minorities.

Roaring '20s 1920

A time of booming business, lots of new entertainment like Jazz Age music, and new technologies.

Great Depression 1930's

1929 stock market crash in US=demand for Lat-am products plumes; external support of neocolonialism disappears; nationalists topple the oligarchies and liberal dictators

World War 2 and Cold War begins 19240s and 1950s


Civil Rights and the Turbulent 60s 1960s


Modern America 1970s- present


Theodore Roosevelt

popular President in the early 1900s who led the U.S into a position as a world power

Woodrow Wilson

President during WW1 who had a role in the peacemaking after WW1

Susan B. Anthony

reform leader for women's rights and prohibition

W.E.B DuBois

founder of the NAACP and leader of reforms benefiting African-American

World War 1

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia,
Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Reason for U.S. involvement- unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans and support for the Allies led to U.S. involvement in WW1 in 1917
Treaty of Versailles- the treaty ending WW1 that redrew the map of Europe, blamed Germany for the war.
Wilson's Fourteen Points- and provision for The League of Nations represents President Wilson's goals for nations to have self-determination and an international peacekeeping forum. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty and participate in the League of Nations


U.S. expansion and imperialism
Labor Unions
Farm issues
Rise of Big Business
Treatment of minorities


the development of industries for the machine production of goods.


the movement of persons from one country or locality to another


migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Clarence Darrow

Chicago trial lawyer, defended John Scopes in the 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists


migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)


an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers


the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)

Stock Market Crash (1929)

Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression

New Deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions

Social Security Act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Franklin D. Roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II


German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)


Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister who declared that Britian would never give in to the Axis Powers

Harry Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Rise of dictators

the increased of fascist dictators (Hitler/Germany and Mussolini/Italy) was one major cause of WW2

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Multiple front war

WW2 was fought in two major areas

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