issues related to gov., conflict-resolution, and decision-making for a group of people
original east coast areas settled by Great Britain/England beginning in 1607 that became the original 13 states
Consent of the governed
idea that people give government its power through the "... just consent of the governed" as stated in the Declaration
to cut off supplies, a military and economic tool used to force a nation or area to suffer shortages and to give up fighting; called naval when ships are used
Great Britain (England)
the "mother country" for the 13 colonies; country we fought against for the independence of the U.S.
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Level(s) of development
refers to the amount and quality of economic and industrial resources, often related to national income
Standard of living
the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.
country with borders and an organized government which freely exercises authority within the borders
Free-enterprise economic system
the system in the U.S. and other free market economies. It includes economic choice, competition, profit motive, and limited government regulation of the economy.
Command economic system
central government owns most of the means of production in a country and controls most economic decisions
Goods and services
goods (things) are products made for sale/barter and services (actions) are products people provide
growing crops just to support a family and not have any extra (surplus) to sale
Growing crops for the commercial sale and distribution to domestic and international buyers.
the process of creating commercial industry including heavy industry such as steel
the introduction of new technology which often changes lifestyle and production
spread of ideas, technology, religion, language and other cultural practices over time and across space
Patterns of settlement
describing similarities in the places and ways people move into and stay in a given area
Adaptations to the environment
ways people learn to use and live with their environment. Adaptations might include wearing cooler clothing in hot weather or building adobe house in a dry climate
to declare something to be without power or effect; to disregard the power of something as in the Nullification Crisis
Democracy (democratic society)
Form of government in which citizens rule, either directly or by choosing leaders to rule, usually through voting
Type of government where, through law, some control is placed on leadership's power such as a democracy
government in which leaders rule without any restrictions such as dictatorship or other totalitarian government
Key decisions by the courts that interpret the law such as Brown vs. Board of Education which led to the integration or Marbury vs. Madison which led to judicial review
an original document, artifact, picture, journal, cartoon from the period in which an event occurred or a record from a person who participated in the event
information that comes from other sources (either primary or secondary) such as a textbook, encyclopedia
Frame of reference
the perspective from which a person views historical or current issues and events
declaration of Independence signed on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia by delegates to the Second Contiental Congress
U.S Constitution written by delegates to the constitutional convention met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation and decided to draft a new plan of government for the U.S
The American Civil War fought over the issues of slavery, states' right, and economic and sectional differences between the North and the South
leader of the Continental Army during the revolution; president of the constitutional convention and the first president of U.S
Issues causing the Revolution
No taxation without representation, colonial protest against British polices and taxes; battles at Lexington/concord
Grievances listed against king George III of England declaring the AMERICAN colonies independent. written in Philadelphia by Thomas Jefferson, July 4, 1776
Growth of representative institutions
The Virginia House of Burgess 1st representative Govt assembly in colonies
Mayflower Compact- document outlining principles of self government.
Fundamental Order of Connecticut- one of the first written constitutions in the colonies.
English Bill of Rights 1689
English Bill of Rights (1689): Repeats some of early docs (trials and say in taxes), but added right free speech in parliament, to bear arms, no cruel and unusual punishment, and no Catholic king.
Declaration of Independence 1776
Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
Articles of Confederation 1781
First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
U.S. Constitution 1787 ratified 1789
Set up government as a federalism system and established constitutional democracy
Bill of Rights 1791
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Legislative Branch- elected representatives who make or enact laws; Congress at the federal level
Executive Branch- elected and appointed individuals who enforce laws; at the federal level the President heads this branch
Judicial Branch- justices (judges) who interpret the law (through the courts); at the federal level the U.S Supreme Court is the highest court of this branch
Theses are protected by the Bill of Rights and include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.
based on a broad interpretation of the 10th amendment, states rights was the idea that states had the right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the federal government by the specific words of the constitution. it was used by (mostly) southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify (ignore) federal laws they did not agree with. states rights became a leading cause of the Civil War as Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the U.S. and formed the Confederate of America in 1861
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude. This applied to male citizens over the age of 21.
creates federal income tax provision. this was an amendment strongly supported by the Progressive Reformers.
provides for direct election of US senators, another amendment supported by the Progressive
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections. Part of the Civil Rights legislation of 1964.
The years of U.S. involvement in World War II began in Europe in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland, which began with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and ended with the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Progressive and Reform Era 1900-1919
Progressive wanted to reform American life and improve political, social, and economics conditions for workers, farmers, urban middle class, women, children and minorities.
Roaring '20s 1920
A time of booming business, lots of new entertainment like Jazz Age music, and new technologies.
Great Depression 1930's
1929 stock market crash in US=demand for Lat-am products plumes; external support of neocolonialism disappears; nationalists topple the oligarchies and liberal dictators
popular President in the early 1900s who led the U.S into a position as a world power
World War 1
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia,
Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Reason for U.S. involvement- unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans and support for the Allies led to U.S. involvement in WW1 in 1917
Treaty of Versailles- the treaty ending WW1 that redrew the map of Europe, blamed Germany for the war.
Wilson's Fourteen Points- and provision for The League of Nations represents President Wilson's goals for nations to have self-determination and an international peacekeeping forum. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty and participate in the League of Nations
U.S. expansion and imperialism
Rise of Big Business
Treatment of minorities
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Stock Market Crash (1929)
Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
British Prime Minister who declared that Britian would never give in to the Axis Powers
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Rise of dictators
the increased of fascist dictators (Hitler/Germany and Mussolini/Italy) was one major cause of WW2
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in the pacific theater of World War II.
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
largest amphibious invasion in history; turned the Germans inland/regained France; June 6, 1944
a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
Rosie the Riveter and the popular slogan We Can Do It represented the influence of women in the workforce during WW2
End of Depression
Although the New Deal provided relief and hope, it was the Second World War that lifted us out of the Great Depression.
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterans as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Internment of Japanese-Americans
1942 forcible relocation and internment of approximately 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "war relocation camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. Then justified as a security measure, but has been since deemed unjustified
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
a war between North and South Korea noun
South Korea was aided by the United States and other members of the United Nations; 1950-1953
In 1957 Sputnik 1 was launched into space by the Russians and became the 1 satellite to orbit the earth.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Brown v Board of Education (1954)
decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Right Act of 1965
A policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876 and founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
Polio vaccine was develop by Dr. Jonas Salk in the 1950s to combat the polio epidemic. This was a success in stopping this disease
Improvement in the standard of life
Electricity, telephones, TVs, refrigeration and air-conditioning, $ and programs for educations, computers, increasingly affordable and available technology as well as large numbers of consumers goods at affordable prices
patented by Samuel Morse in 1837, this was a way of sending messages using electric current and a special code called Morse Code
Petroleum- based products
Edwin Drake found oil in Pennsylvania in 1859. At Spindletop (near Beaumont) in 1901, huge deposits of oil were discovered. This led to refining of products such as gasoline, plastics, and chemicals and a boom for Texas.
Beginning in the 40's with the big main frames through the development of personal computer into the 21th century and hand-held technology
Telephone, radio, TV, movies, computers, internet, cellular and satellite communication
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages., Issues surrounding the production of agricultural products. The main issues were the high cost of transportation (caused railroad monopolies), low prices for farm products (caused by overproduction), and mortgaged farms in order to buy seed and supplies.
Organizations of workers who,
together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
U.S. expansion and imperialism
The U.S. became increasingly interested in foreign affairs and in spreading U.S. influence around the world
Rise of Big Business
Industrialization lead to the rise of big business in the north and south. The railroad also helped many industries.
Treatment of minorities and child labor
the Progressive took on the issues of poor treatment of women and children in the workplace. As a result of reform efforts laws were passed to regulate wages and hours for workers. The treatment of minorities, particularly after WW1 were improved through organizations such as NAACP, LULAC, and other groups