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IB History Latin American FINAL
Great Note Cards
Terms in this set (23)
Freed slaves who led rev. in Haiti;Independence 1804 imprisoned by French,died there.
Jean Jacques Dessalines
He was Toussaint L'ouverture's general, and took up the fight for the freedom of slaves in Saint Domingue on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean sea. In 1804, he declared the slave colony an independent country, the first black country to free itself from European control, and named the country Haiti.
Nicknamed the Liberator, led revolutions against the Spanish in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Jose de San Martin
great liberator Creole from Argentina; 1817: San Martin led an army across Andes to Chile and was joined by Bernardo O'Higgins, and finally freed Chile; left his forces to Bolivar to command after reaching Lima, Peru, thus uniting revolutionary forces.
(1778-1842) South American Independence leader who freed Chile from spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence, considered one of Chile's founding fathers. He and his forces joined San Martin and was the son of a former viceroy of Peru - With his help, San Martin finally freed Chile
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed. led the first march for Mexican Independence in 1810; Grito de Dolores; "Father of Mexican Independence"
Came after Hidalgo. More articulate, more sucessful. Why was he more successful. Also a mexican priest. Had many more followers. He was later captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815. Still considered a national hero in Mexico.
Agustin de Iturbide
He was the Creole officer who defeated Hidalgo's successor in 1815. By the 1820s, a liberal group was in power in Spain, so the creoles, fearing the loss of their privileges, joined the rebels, united in support of Mexico's independence from Spain. This man then made peace with the last rebel leader and proclaimed independence in 1821 (Treaty of Cordoba). He declared himself emperor Augustus I, but resigns in 1823. Went into exile but came back and got murdered.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
people born in Spain and Portugal; held most important government jobs and most important positions in catholic church
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
persons of mixed european and african ancestry
Indians, many different disjointed tribes
a set of economic and political reforms introduced by the house of bourbon that were intended to make administration in the spanish colonies more efficient and their economies more productive
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799. Showing the colonies they too could break off.
France vs. Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia. 1806 Napoleon defeats Russia in battle. 1807 Treaty of Tilsit signed. 1812 Napoleon invades Russia; the French keep advancing and winning battles until Battle of Borodino. After battle the French must retreat, during which 700,000 of their 750,000 soldiers die. No trade with britain. european leaders determine new leader. Napolean chose his own brother.
wealthy white plantation owners in saint domingue
Gens de couleur
Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
army of the andes
A military of Argentinians and Colombians led by San Martin fighting to free Chile from Spanish rule. Movements were very carefully calculated. Moved very slowly.
el grito de dolores
This was a speech by Miguel Hidalgo that called for Mexicans to fight for their independence from Spain. It means "The Cry of Dolores".
Plan of Iguala
independence plan for Mexico that included three promises (written by Iturbide): 1) Iturbide was to be emperor, 2) the Roman Catholic Church would remain official church of mexico, 3) Equal rights for all mexicans
the new Mexican Government. 1) contitutional monarchy 2) Roman Catholicism protected 3) Pennisulares and creoles treated equally
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