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Near V. Minnesota

Prior Restrain
Near won

New York Times v. United States

Pentagon papers
Prior Restraint
New York Times won

Zenger v. Governor of New York City

Actual Malice was added to Libel


Written Defamation
Best defense for Libel is truth
Must prove the following:
Actual Injury
)Actual Malice)


Only two people have to see it to be considered published


Person that is being "attacked" must be clearly identified either by name, title or other ways


False information

Actual injury

Proof that money was lost, reputation was stained etc...

Actual Malice

Was added to prove libel in the Zenger case when involving a public figure. Must prove
false light
reckless disregard

Two-Step Flow Theory

1. Opinion leaders receive information from the media they then draw conclusions and 2. tell society what they received with their own opinions.

Selective Exposure Theory

We select media that aligns with our opinions.
Selective Exposure
Selective Perception
Selective Retention

Selective Exposure

Is part of the Selective Exposure Theory where we resist media that is against our beliefs.

Selective Perception

We perceive media through what our opinions are

Selective Retention

We don't remember the information that isn't important to us.

Media Effects Actions Theory

Powerful- immediate effects on actions
Cumulative- Over time it effects our actions
Moderate- Not that much right away but does have some effects on our actions
Minimal- Little effects

Powerful effects

Propaganda, Social Learning Theory, Payne Fund (T.V.), War of the Worlds

Cumulative effects

Spiral of Silence, Cultivation Theory

Moderate effects

Uses and Gratification Theory, Agenda-Setting Theory, Framing, Priming

Minimal effects

1. Audience interaction
2. Change a belief
3. Modify an attitude that makes a belief

Functions of Public Relations

Research - survey
Convey a message - VNR, PSA
Media Relations
Government Relations/Lobbying Gas Company
1.Special events- grand opening
2. Pseudo events- Fashion Show (fake)
Consumer or Community Relations- preven backlash
Crisis Management or Control

Theories of Public Relations

Agenda-Setting Theory- The media tells you what to think about not what to think
Priming- Can't see the whole scope a lot of messages. Fill the gaps and make it flood.
Framing- Type of language you use, Helps you think a certain way.



Ways Social Media changes Theories

Choice- More choice to get word and get word out
Conversation- more options to talk, reputation made/lost
Curation-stays on forever
Creation- Pro users. Possibility to create media. shortening time
Collaboration- Try products and blog about it.


Logical Appeal- Head, Statistics and facts
Emotional Appeal- Heart, Feeling, subconscious

New York Times v. Sullivan

Advertisement about civil rights

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