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Robert M. La Follete

Politician from wisconsin who proposed that political parties select their candidates by a popular vote

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.

Lincoln Steffens

Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

Frank Norris

Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers

Progressive Constitutional Amendments

included Prohibition with the 18th Amendment and women's suffrage by the 19th amendment, both in 1920 as well as the federal income tax with the 16th amendment and direct election of senators with the 17th amendment

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

Northern Securities Case

was a holding company in 1902 (railroads). The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first trust-bust.

Hepburn Act

Prohibited free passes. Gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.

Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.

Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

Compromise tariff, 650 tariff schedules were lowered, 220 raised, and 1,150 left unchanged. An additional provision of the bill provided for the creation of a tariff board to study the problem of tariff modification in full and to collect information on the subject for the use of Congress and the President in future tariff considerations

Eugene Debs

Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike. Internation Labor Union and more...

Bull Moose Party

nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912

Underwood Tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions. Weakened monopolies, upheld rights of unions.

Federal Reserve Act

a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

Federal Trade Commission

Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies

Josiah Strong

a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas

Alfred Thayer Mahan

a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890

De Lome letter

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

Teller Resolution

Stated that the US intended to free Cuba from tyranny and did not seek to control the island for itself

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

Treaty of Portsmouth

in 1905, it gave Japan control of Korea and rights in ports of Manchuria

Gentlemen's Agreement

Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble, prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Pancho Villa

Rebel Mexican General who led a raid against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 17 Americans, Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923)

General John J. Pershing

veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917. Commander of American Expeditiary Forces


Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

Sussex Pledge

A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.

Zimmerman Telegram

March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.

Selective Service Act

This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.

Creel Committee

Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Paris Peace Conference

The peace conference that decided the terms of WWI peace and Treaty of Versailles.

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

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