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11 terms

Microbilogy CH11

definitions
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Cocci
spherical
- Chain = Streptoccus
- Cluster = Staphylococcus

diplococci- two cocci together-streptococuccus pneumoniae

streptococci-chain- streptococcus pyogenes

tetrads-four cocci in a square formation- M. luteus

sarcinae- small ball of cocci

staphylococci- big clusters- staphylococcus aureus
bacilli
Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive,
rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the division Firmicutes.
Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes, and test positive for the enzyme catalase.
Under stressful environmental conditions, the cells produce oval endospores that can stay dormant for extended periods.
Two Bacillus species are considered medically significant: B. anthracis, which causes anthrax, and B. cereus, which causes a foodborne illness similar to that of Staphylococcus. A third species, B. thuringiensis, is an important insect pathogen, and is sometimes used to control insect pests. The type species is B. subtilis, an important model organism. It is also a notable food spoiler, causing ropiness in bread and related food. Some environmental and commercial strains B. coagulans may play a role in food spoilage of highly acidic, tomato based products.
The cell wall is composed of teichoic and teichuronic acids. B. subtilis is the first bacterium for which the role of an actin-like cytoskeleton in cell shape determination and peptidoglycan synthesis was identified, and for which the entire set of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes was localised.

rod shaped


vibrios-curved rods
coccobacillas-shape between the two
Chain = Streptobacillus
bacillus morphology
rod shape
vibrios-curved rods
coccobacillas-shape between the two
single bacillus- E.coli
diplobacilli- two
streptobacilli- chain
palisade- folded arrangment
v-shape- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
sprirals
spirilla-stiff
spirochetes-flexible
pleomorphic
prokaryotes that vary in shape and size
List three common types of reproduction in prokaryotes
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Binary fission
the cell replicates its DNA, elongates, forms a cross wall and divides into two equal sized daughter cells.
snapping division
occurs in some gram-positive bacilli-only the inner portion of the cell wall forms a cross wall. As the daughter cells grow, tension snaps the outer portionof the cell wall, leaving the daughter cells connected by a hinge of old cell wall material.
spores
reproductive cell of actinomycetes and fungi
budding
in which an out growth of the original (a bud) receives a copy ofthe genetic material and enlarges. Eventually the bud is cut off from the parental cell, typically while it is still quite small.
viviparity
an organism whose offspring develop and are nourished within the mother's body and are born alive
Epulopiscium-giant bacterial symbiont of surgeonfish-first documented case in prokaryotes