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79 terms

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Detailed overview of Rough and Smooth ER and associated functions
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Cisternae
Name of flattened sacs which make up the membrane of the ER.
ER Lumen
also known as cisternal space, interior of ER membrane.
Smooth ER
Organelle associated with drug detoxification.
Hydroxylation
The process of adding a hydroxyl group to a non-polar molecule so that it becomes more soluble in water and is excreted from the organism. (Smooth ER)
Glucose-6 Phosphatase
Main enzyme of glucose metabolism found in smooth ER.
Liver
Organ used for glucose regulation and storage as glycogen.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Organelle specialized for Ca 2+ storage in muscle cells.
Rough ER
Continuous with outer nuclear membrane.
Smooth ER
Organelle associated with carbohydrate metabolism.
Smooth ER
Section of ER used in calcium storage.
Rough ER
Organelle associated with protein synthesis.
Translocon
Protein in rough ER used for co-translation of proteins into the cisternal space(lumen).
Signal peptide sequence
Protein sequence which labels proteins for import into ER
Stop transfer sequence
Protein sequence which labels proteins for integration into membrane.
Signal peptidase
Enzyme which cleaves signal peptide sequence from polypeptide chain as it enters the lumen.
Rough ER
Site of co-translational and post-translational modifications.
Protein disulfide isomerase
Enzyme which catalyzes the formation and breakdown of disulfide bonds.
Rough ER
Site of protein folding.
40S
Size of small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit.
60S
Size of large eukaryotic ribosomal subunit.
30S
Size of small prokaryotic ribosomal subunit.
50S
Size of large prokaryotic ribosomal subunit.
80S
Size of eukaryotic ribosome.
70S
Size of prokaryotic ribosome.
Aminoacyl site
Site of tRNA arrival in ribosomes, also known as A site.
Peptidyl site
Site of peptide bond formation in ribosomes, also known as P site.
Exit site
Site where tRNA leaves the ribosome.
mRNA binding site
Site where mRNA binds to ribosome.
Aminoacyl tRNA
A tRNA with it's attached amino acid.
Anticodon
Three nucleotide sequence complementary to a codon in tRNA.
Francis Crick
Who proposed the wobble hypothesis.
Inosine
Unusual nucleotide found more commonly in tRNA which can pair with U, C, and A.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthase
Enzyme used to link the proper amino acid to the proper tRNA.
Leader
Segment of mRNA not translated found before the start codon.
Trailer
Segment of mRNA not translated found after the stop codon.
Polygenic
Adjective used to describe mRNA which can code for several proteins, found in Prokaryotes.
5' to 3'
Direction ribosome travels on mRNA.
Initiation
First step of protein synthesis where ribosome binds to mRNA.
Elongation
Second step of protein synthesis where amino acids are added to a growing polypeptide chain.
Termination
Third step of protein synthesis where polypeptide and mRNA are released from the ribosome.
1
IF1, IF2, and IF3 bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and GTP binds to IF2. (Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic translation)
2
mRNA and tRNA-Methionine bind to 30S ribosomal subunuit IF1 and IF3 are released.(Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic protein synthesis.)
Shine-Dalgarno
Name of 3-9 purine nucleotides found upstream of start codon in mRNA. This sequence binds part of the 30S ribosomal subunit that has a pyrimidine rich rRNA segment.
N-formylmethionine
First amino acid integrated into prokaryotic polypeptides.
3
GTP hydrolysis joins the 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. IF2 is released and translation begins.(Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic protein synthesis.)
1
40S ribosomal subunit is complexed with eIF3 and eIF1A. eIF2-GTP binds with tRNA-met and binds to 40S subunit. This complex then binds to 5' end of mRNA.(Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
2
eIF4 disassembles secondary structure found at the capped 5' end of the mRNA. This finalizes the 40S initiation complex. (Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
3
The 40S initiation complex slides along the mRNA until the Kozak sequence and start codon are found. There the 60S ribosomal subunit joins and translation begins.(Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
Kozak sequence
5'-ACCAUGG-3' Name of this sequence which 40S initiation complex searches for to bind 60S ribosomal subunit and begin translation.
EF-Tu
Elongation factor needed to transport aminoacyl tRNA to A site of ribosome in prokaryotes. Carries two GTP molecules.
rRNA
Molecule in ribosome responsible for what was mistaken as peptidyl transferase activity.
Ribozyme
Name of enzyme which is made entirely out of RNA.
EF-G-GTP
Elongation factor needed for translocation of tRNA from sites A and P to sites E and P in prokayrotes, bound to GTP.
Hydrolytic cleavage
Type of reaction which occurs when a release factor terminates eukaryotic protein synthesis.
BiP
Other name for heat shock protein 70(Hsp70)
Heat shock proteins
Class of molecular chaperones which assist in folding proteins into the correct conformation or refolding misfolded proteins.
Ubiquitin
The molecule which mutated or misfolded proteins are tagged with for degradation in the cytoplasm after they are deglycosylated.
Ubiquitinylation
The process of degrading a misfolded protien after tagging it with ubiquitin.
Apoptosis
Aggregates of misfolded proteins can sometimes form which could lead to.
tau MAP
Name of polymerized protein which forms intracellular tangles in alzheimer's disease.
Prions
Name of replicating misfolded proteins.
Nonsense mutation
A mutation which changes an amino acid coding codon to a stop codon.
Protein splicing
Removal of segments of a polypeptide in post-translational modification.
Intein
Name of removed segment from a spliced protein.
Exteins
Name of segments of polypeptide chains which are spliced together.
Co-translational import
Process of polypeptide synthesis into the Rough ER.
Signal recognition particle
Protein which binds to signal peptide, ribosome, and receptor on ER. Protein blocks translation of mRNA until docked at rough ER.
BiP
Molecular chaperone of the rough ER which binds to hydrophobic regions of unfolded polypeptide to stabilize molecule.
KDEL
Name of protein sequence which targets proteins to ER related organelles.
Glycosylation
Name of the addition or modification of sugar side-chains to newly folded proteins in the rough ER.
High-mannose core
Type of core found in sugar molecules added to proteins.
Golgi complex
Where soluble proteins produced in the Rough ER are sent.
Start transfer sequence
Protein sequence which is bound by the signal recognition particle to be sent for another pass through the membrane.
SKL
Protein sequence which targets proteins to peroxisomes.
Transit sequence
Sequence used to target polypeptides to the chloroplast and mitochondria.
4
How many compartments are found in mitochondria?(Enter a number)
6
How many compartments are found in chloroplasts.(Enter a number)
N-linked glycosylation
The addition of a specific oligosaccharide to asparagine as part of post translational modification.
O-linked glycosylation
The addition of a specific oligosaccharide to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine as part of post translational modification.