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APUSH Fall - Essay Prompts
Terms in this set (11)
Compare and contrast the role of religion in the founding of the Spanish colonies with that of the English colonies in the 17th century.
Spanish: settled to convert Native Americans to Christianity (enslaved if didn't)
-Missions: missionary leaders were powerful
attendees: made people go to church
-Conversion of the Indians (Franciscans): made Indians convert to Christianity, if not, enslave them, overall treated harshly
-Pueblo Revolt (1680): Pueblo people revolt against the Spanish
-Church's central role in settlement:
English: settled in New World for religious freedom
-Didn't come just to convert Native Americans, came for religious freedom
-Puritans: reserved society, simpler life, no religious hierarchy, predestination, Massachusetts, came as family
-Pilgrims: permanent settlements , came with family,
-Separatists: separate from Anglican church completely
-Pennsylvania: Quakers, religious toleration, set-up for religious freedom
-Rhode Island, Roger Williams:
-Anne Hutchinson: Puritan rebellion, challenged gender -roles, banished from MA to RI
-Religious freedom (escape persecution) Salem witchcraft trials
-John Winthrop: Puritan leader and established Massachusetts Bay colony
Analyze the relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies in the years prior to 1763 and that in the years after 1763.
French and Indian War causes change: 7 years war between France and Britain
disputes over land, tensions turn to war, global conflict between France and Britain
Indians are thought to have no land
End of Salutary Neglect
Britain in debt from defending colonies, begins to tax them to pay debt
colonists gain fighting experience/confidence, Militiamen (British soldiers don't respect)
Proclamation Line of 1763
Pontiac's Rebellion: Indians rebelling against colonists pushing on their territory
British can't afford a war against the Indians, creates Proclamation Line, colonists mad
Bacon's Rebellion - led to Salutary Neglect
Salutary Neglect (1650-1763): virtually self-rule with distant rulers, economically prosperous
Navigation Acts ignored: goods from US have to be transported only by British ships and go through Britain; drive trade back through Britain
Sugar Act (1764): designed to regulate trade and raise revenue; tax on sugar, royal navy enforced, colonists angry
Currency Act (1764): bans paper money, after colonists started printing paper money
Quartering Act (1764): must house British soldiers
Stamp Act (1765): first direct tax, colonists must put stamps on any printed paper
economic boycott by colonists, Sons of Liberty, Stamp Act Congress —> repeal it
Declaratory Act: Parliament has full authority over colonies
Townshend Acts (1767): tax on paper, tea, led, paint
repealed, but tax on tea continued, Boston Massacre (1770)
colonists boycott tea: Boston Tea Party (1773)
Intolerable Acts (1774): Massachusetts Government Act, Boston Port Act, Quartering Act, Quebec Act, Administration of Justice Act
Declaration of Independence
Compare and contrast the political views and goals between the Jeffersonian Democrats and the Jacksonian Democrats.
rejected Hamilton's plan for a National Bank, wanted state banks
against tariffs and national debt
supported an agrarian economy
strict constructionist; went against own beliefs in Louisiana Purchase
believed in people's rights:
fought for Bill of Rights in Constitution
supporters: merchants, shop-keepers, Democratic-Republican
believed in a weak federal government, democracy
rejected second charter of National Bank:
moved federal money to state pet banks
caused recession by beginning Specie Circular
against tariffs and national debt
went against this when he passed the Tariff of Abominations
Force Bill: use army power to collect tariffs in South Carolina
rags to riches story, was a poor man turn President; expand voting rights
against Supreme Court's power, against infrastructure projects;
created more Presidential power, Kitchen Cabinet, Spoils System, monarchy
Compare and contrast experiences for Native Americans during colonial times 1500-1775 to the experiences of the Plains Indians from 1850-1900.
Jamestown (1607): need for more land (tobacco ruining soil), caused colonists to kick Indians out
Spanish enslavement of natives if they did not convert to Christianity
Pontiac's Rebellion: mad at colonists for encroaching on their land, led to Proclamation Line of 1763
Fur trade with France, good relationship with Indians
French and Indian War: sided against the natives with the British to fight for their land
Bacon's Rebellion: killed Indians, governor wouldn't forcefully take out the Indians at frontier, Nathaniel Bacon led rebels to take them out
Columbian Exchange: affected by European diseases they had no immunity to, killed a big portion of their population
horses were introduced to them, new weaponry,
Indian Removal Act
Compare and contrast the reasons behind President Polk leading the U.S. to war against Mexico in 1849 to President Madison leading the U.S. to war in 1812.
Polk, War with Mexico in 1849:
Britain's interest in buying the land and making it free
"manifest destiny" to expand US land
wanted to gain Texas and Oregon territory, continued expansion onto Mexican land
Madison, War of 1812:
British attempts to restrict US trade
Royal Navy's impressment of American seamen the
America's desire to expand its territory
Non-Intercourse Act: prevent trade from Britain and France, ineffective
if either power dropped trade restrictions against the United States, Congress would in turn resume non-intercourse with the opposing power, choose France or Britain
Napoleon dropped restrictions, US cut off trade with Britain
stand up against Britain, stop impressment, prove independence
Desire for Canada and Florida
To what extent did women's lives socially and politically change and remain the same from 1765 to 1865?
Around the time period of 1765 women were starting to become more prominent and important members of society — they were responsible for raising / educating the children i.e. the next generation, so therefore they were of great value to the community (Cult of Domesticity/Republican Motherhood)
came to colonies after men, worked in the house: caring for children, cooking, sewing
the Revolution caused women to have a more important role
republican motherhood: gave women the opportunity to teach their children
more power when husbands were gone
Cult of Domesticity: the ideal woman became one who stayed at home and taught children how to be proper citizens
women became nurses during War of 1812, more prominently in Civil War
women took active roles in reform: abolitionism, reform and women right's
women slaves took very active roles in ending of slavery: Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth
Seneca Falls Convention: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Uncle Tom's Cabin: written by women, Harriet Beecher Stowe
Dorothea Dix-- Prison and mental institution reform
Margaret Fuller-- Women in the 19th Century
Post Civil War: many young women began to do more work themselves, older generation didn't change
women rarely went to school, schooling for women increased (colleges for women- Oberlin)
did not receive the right to vote until 1920
women's legal status was based on marital status
single: much more freedom, seen as own person
married: joint union with husband, he represents the both of you
Analyze and evaluate the impact of Andrew Jackson's economic policies including his view on banking during the early years of the republic.
Panic of 1819
Hamilton's Financial Plan
First National Bank (1791)
Acted as the government's own personal bank. Federal tax revenues were deposited in the national bank. The government was also able to take loans and borrow money from the national bank
Also received deposits / gave loans to private citizens
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution gave the US government the power to recharter the national bank
Jackson strongly resented this recharter
Jackson protected and vitalized the rights of small farmers and placed great importance on the agricultural economy of the United States
The Maysville Road Veto
Congress approved a $50,000 investment to build the Maysville Road which would connect to the National Road
Decision was controversial because people were unsure if this was an appropriate exercise of congressional power
Jackson vetoed this bill — his own way of slowing down the growth of the market economy
Analyze the causes of growing opposition to slavery in the United States from 1776 to 1852. In your response, consider both underlying forces and specific events that contributed to the growing opposition.
Missouri compromise of 1820: Missouri applied to become slave state, but would upset the balance, so Maine enters as free
Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831: most violent slave revolt, which led to stricter slave code and education law and Northern sympathy
Anti- slavery gag rule 1836: prohibited discussion of petition regarding slavery to congress
Wilmot Proviso 1846: ban slavery in newly acquired land from Mexico
Underground Railroad 1760-1862: started by the Quakers to help slaves escape the south
Compromise of 1850: CA enters as free, Fugitive Slave law is enforced and personal liberty laws
Uncle Tom's cabin 1852: response to fugitive slave law
Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to the period 1845-1861.
1845- Texas annex as slave state under President John Tyler convinced Congress
1846- War with Mexico declared Polk's opponents charged him with provoking the war to satisfy a "slave power" in the South
1846- Wilmot Proviso: Stated that slavery should never exist in any territory taken from Mexico. Passed the House but not the Senate.
1848- Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: included mexican cession: It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the US ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada,Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.
Compromise of 1850 (introduced by Henry Clay: Douglas drove through):
Admission of California as a free state (16 free states and 15 slave states)
New Mexico and Utah open to popular sovereignty.
Texas lost land that would probably become free territory.
The slave trade was banned in Washington, D.C.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850:
Heavy fines and jail sentences for those who helped runaway slaves escape.
"Personal liberty laws" in the North
1852- Uncle Tom's Cabin- implied slavery not only political problem, but moral struggle, compromises will never solve it
south mad of stereotypical Southern reputation
north abolitionist protest against fugitive slave law
1854 Kansas Nebraska Act
1855 Bleeding Kansas
1857 Lecompton Constitution
1858 Dred Scott v Stanford
1858 Lincoln v Douglas Debates
1860- Winning of Lincoln Election of 1860
1861- Kansas being annexed into US as free state
Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of TWO of the following. Missouri Compromise, Mexican War, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska-Act.
Any states above this line would be free, any states below this line would have the power to vote (popular sovereignty) to make the state a slave state
Missouri entered the Union as a slave state; Maine entered the Union as a free state — kept Senate split evenly
This allowed for the growth of slavery but also addressed the overwhelming issue of abolition
Compromise of 1850
CA - free state, NM / UT - undecided, DC - no slave trade
Fugitive Slave Law; if free blacks were taken by whites then they could be declared slaves - (Court official would be given $5 if he or she deemed a black person to be free, and would be given $10 if he or she deemed a black person to be a slave)
Personal Liberty Laws; Prevents Northern officials from assisting slave owners in reclaiming their escaped slaves (a form of nullification)
Sectionalism increased - Northern dislike of Fugitive Slave Law, Southern dislike of Personal Liberty Laws
Analyze how western expansion contributed to growing sectional tensions between the North and the South. Confine your answer to the period from 1800 to 1850.
Louisiana Purchase in 1803
• American System of Henry Clay (1816) supported a high tariff to protect American industries and generate revenue for the federal government; continuation of the Bank of the United States; development of a system of internal improvements to tie the nation together, which would be financed by profits from the tariff, the bank, and the sale of western lands.
• Erie Canal: meant to connect East and West
- no improvements made to connect north and south
• Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1820 (11 slave and 11 free states when Missouri asked to be admitted to the Union as a slave state) was authored by Henry Clay, "the Great Compromiser."
- Maine was admitted as a free state; Missouri, as a slave state; all future states north of 36 '30 with the exception of Missouri, would come into the Union as free states.
• Tariff of Abominations favored the north, but south was very upset
- This lead to Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and southern states threatened to secede
- money from tariff could have been used to expand west
• Railroads begin to replace canals as the heart of the American transportation system (1830s and forward); most railroads ran east to west, helping to cement the North/West alliance.
• Gag rule was adopted (1836); this informal rule in Congress allowed slavery petitions to the House of Representatives to be automatically tabled, thus putting off divisive debates over the issue of slavery. The use of the gag rule lasted until 1844.
• New parties popping up everywhere against slavery in westward expansion (ex. Liberty Party)
• James K.Polk (Democrat) favored westward expansion.
- "54 40 or fight" (campaign slogan)
• Oregon Treaty (1846) resulted in the British-American boundary being set at the 49th parallel.
- South wanted more land for the expansion of slavery
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) confirmed the United States title to Texas and gave the United States the Mexican Cession, which included California; the United States agreed to pay $15 million for the land and assumed a $3,250,000 payment to United States citizens with claims against Mexico.
• Free soil party joined with Free Liberty party after treaty to oppose slavery in new areas
"Re-annexation of Texas and the Reoccupation of Oregon"
• Compromise of 1850 (Henry Clay, "Omnibus Bill"; Stephen Douglas supported Clay's proposed
- Cal. admitted as a free state
- New Mex and Utah pop sovereignty
- Tex. lost land that would have become free land
- stricter fugitive slave law
• Wilmot Proviso that said land from war with Mexico will be free
Thesis: As America started to gain more western land, new parties popped up that wanted to stop the expansion of slavery, while southerners were not in favor of treaties that made new land free because they wanted to get wealth, while south threatened to secede the nation because of their pro slavery views.
What type of natives comprise the steamer's crew?
(T/F) The "Tweed Ring" refers to a group of anarchists who infiltrated labor unions.
T or F: The British army was initially very successful and waging war in the southern colonies after Saratoga
Which colony suffered a reign of terror in which millions of natives were killed and mutilated to force them to produce for the European market?
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