[Chapter 6] For a deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it?
It must be a rule written into a law
Which concept of culture is credited with making social life possible and behavior predictable?
What is the term for all of a group's customary social arrangements that provide predictability in life and which depend on the enforcement of norms?
What concept refers to the formal and informal means of enforcing norms?
What is the major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance?
Sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, while psychological explanations look for answers within the individual
Which personal characteristic of an individual would a sociologist be most likely to address when trying to determine the cause of an individual's deviant behavior?
Their social class
Based on his theory about how we learn to either conform or deviate, what would Edwin Sutherland consider as the underlying cause of deviance?
Based on control theory, when are inner controls most effective?
When we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society
Which theory of deviance places significance on names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior?
Which technique of neutralization is reflected by the comment, "Who are you to talk?"
Condemnation of the condemner
Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the following was not one of them?
One deviant act leads to another, which increases social solidarity
Based on Merton's strain theory, what is the most common reaction to cultural goals and the institutionalized means to meet them?
What is the major difference between white collar crime and street crime?
White collar crime is an act committed in the course of a legitimate occupation, street crime is not
Which sociological perspective is inclined to view the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions?
What is the approximate number of prisoners and jail inmates in the United States today?
Over 2 million
The crime with the highest recidivism rate is ________ and the crime with the lowest recidivism rate is ________
Stealing cars; murder
Who is the psychiatrist who denounced the medicalization of deviance and proclaimed "mental illnesses are neither mental nor illnesses....they are problem behaviors"?
Who was the European sociologist who pointed out that deviance was inevitable and that it would exist even in a group of saints?
For an act to be classified as deviant, it must have disgusting and annoying qualities setting it apart from normal behavior; True or False?
The relativity of deviance is illustrated by the phrase, "it is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant." True or False?
The death penalty
The idea that two control systems-- Inner controls and outer controls-- work against our tendencies to deviate
The violation of norms written into law
Criminal Justice System
The system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
The legitimate objectives held out to the members of a society
The violation of rules or norms
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an "excess of definitions" of deviance and by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant
You may be predisposed to crime by having a low intelligence, the "XYY" theory, and body type
Crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred (dislike, animosity) of someone's race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin
Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
Opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
Approved ways of reaching cultural goals
The view, developed by symbolic interactionists, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity
Medicalization of Deviance
To make some deviance a medical matter, making it seems like it's a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians
An expression of disapproval from breaking a norm; ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a more formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
The view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms
A reward given fro following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
The proportion of people who are rearrested
A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives
"Blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many the approved means to reach that goal; one adaptation is crime, the choice of an innovative but illegitimate means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal
Crimes such as mugging, rape and burglary
Techniques of Neutralization
Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society's norms
White-Collar Crime (Corporate Crime)
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; examples include bribery of public officials, securities violation, embezzlement, false advertisement, and price fixing
[Chapter 7] What is the major means by which neocolonialists maintain their superiority and control over other nations of the world?
They manipulate trade and the debt owed by the weaker nations
What is the major characteristic of the caste system that has permitted it to perpetuate itself for more than 3,000 years in India?
Why is ideology more effective than force as a means to maintain stratification?
Coercion is ineffective because it breeds hostility and nourishes rebellion
NASA, Wal-Mart, and even your university are employing "Tiny Brothers" to maintain security. What are the "Tiny Brothers"?
Security cameras placed around facilities, buildings, and parking lots
What did Marx believe was the primary factor that distinguished the different classes under industrial capitalism?
Relationship to the means of production
What are the three components Max Weber believed comprise one's social class?
Property, power, prestige
What name describes companies that operate across many national boundaries which helps the Most Industrialized Nations maintain global dominance?
What is the ideology supporting the concept that a society's ruler is God's direct representative on earth to administer justice and punish evil doers?
The divine right of kings
When the United Fruit Company (UFC) controlled national and local politics in Central America, how were its economic interests protected?
There was a detail of United States Marines waiting off shore to protect UFC interests
What is one's ability to control others, even over their objections?
What are the two basic reasons why poor nations remain at the bottom of the world stratification order?
The existence of neocolonialism and the influence of multinational corporations
What would Marx call the shared identity members of the working class have for doing "real work" in relation to their position in the means of production?
Traditionally, what were the three factors on which slavery was based?
War, debt, and crime
Workers in the maquiladora along the United State and Mexican border make $10 a day, which is only a fraction of what American workers were paid to do the same work. Why is it unlikely, however, that the Mexican workers will go on strike to demand better wages?
Workers in other nations are eager to do the same work for only a dollar or two a day
Which of the following events is responsible for creating extensive economic ties among the world's nations?
The globalization of capitalism
What is the name of the legislation that allows import and export of raw materials and finished products between Mexico and the United States without taxation?
The North American Free Trade Agreement
What term did Karl Marx use to describe the phenomenon of workers mistakenly identifying with the capitalists?
False class consciousness
In democracies, what are the two methods used by the ruling elite to control information?
Technology and the selective release of information
Based on the research of Melvin Tumin, what is the best predictor of being accepted to a college or university in America?
The family income of a student
What technique does Christina Solidarity International (CSI) utilize in response to slavery in areas of northern Africa, including the Sudan?
CSI utilizes Arab "retrievers" who go to Sudan to either abduct or buy slaves
Karl Marx's term for capitalists; those who own the means of production
A form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong
Karl Marx's term for awareness of a shared identity based on one's position in the means of production
A form of social stratification
The process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources
Culture of Poverty
The assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that the king's authority comes directly from God
The practice of marrying within one's own group
False Class Consciousness
Karl Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists
Globalization of Capitalism
Capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe's dominant economic system
Beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements
Means of Production
The tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
A form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit
Companies that operate across many national boundaries, also call transnational corporations
The economy and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the most In Industrialized Nations
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
A form of social stratification in which some people own other people
According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in power, property and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups, capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
Movement up or down the social class ladder
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige, applied to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
[Chapter 8] What phrase best describe how working class people think about economic and social issues?
The working class is more liberal on economic issues and more conservative on social issues
Which set of characteristics is most applicable in describing the poor in the United States?
White, high school drop-out, mother head of household
Which group of theorists believes the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a reserve labor force?
What term do sociologists use to refer to a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power and prestige?
What formula would a sociologist use to determine one's wealth?
Wealth= total property - total debts
What term did C. Wright mills coin to refer to the collection of people who make the big decisions in U.S. society?
According to the text, what is the average family income in America?
In the United States, what occupation holds the greatest prestige?
Which explanation of poverty do sociologists generally support?
Sociologist support the social structure over the characteristics of the individual as an explanation of poverty
Which of the following religions draws its membership heavily from the working poor and underclass?
Who wrote about mythical ragas-to-riches boy heroes and their amazing success stories?
How did Karl Marx define social class?
Social class is solely based on one's relationship to the means of production
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
What are the two subdivisions of the capitalist class?
"Old" money and "new" money
How many classes exist in Erik Wright's modified Marxian model of social class?
What did sociologists Daniel Hellinger and Dennis Judd call the false impression American voters have that the influence national and foreign policy because they vote?
The democratic facade
What is the approximate number of American children living in poverty?
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town and now lives below the poverty line. How would a sociologist describe John's situation?
John is poor because of a change in social structure
In addition to the criteria or wealth, power, and prestige, what other component did Kahl and Gilbert include in their six-tier model of class in capitalist countries?
Which class of Americans pride themselves for having "real jobs" and feel that workers in suits are no more than paper pushers with no practical experience?
The working class
A condition resulting from status inconsistency
Contradictory Class Locations
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests
Culture of Poverty
The assumption that values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics on to their children
Downward Social Mobility
Movement down the social class ladder
The same number of people move both up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change
Feminization of Poverty
A trend in U.S. poverty where most poor families are headed by women
Horatio Alger myth
The belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough
A flow of money
The change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
The official measure of poverty; calculate to include those whose incomes are less than three times a low-cost food budget
The ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
C. Wright Mill's term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics who make the nation's major decisions
Respect or regard
Material possessions: animals, bank accounts, bonds, buildings, businesses, cars, furniture, land and stocks
According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists, who own the means of production or workers, who sell their labor
Social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or in a social group
People ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
Ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
Movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts
A group of people for whom poverty persists year after year across generations
Upward Social Mobility
Movement up the social class ladder
Property and income
[Chapter 9] What is the attempted destruction of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?
What do sociologists call a tendency for people to be blind to the messages that labels convey?
In the late 19th century, what term described immigrants from Europe whose language and customs were different than those who had already settled America?
From which country do Americans of European descent most often trace their ancestry?
In the 18th century, executioners wore black hoods to conceal their identities and separate their actions from a sense of being a good and moral person. What is such a tactic called?
Which sociological perspective best explains the concepts of a reserve labor force and a split labor market?
What is the intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?
What conclusion did sociologist Kathleen Blee reach after she studied women who joined hate groups?
Some women who join hate groups learn to be racists after they join a hate group
Sam, a bartender who served in the Vietnam War, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sociologically, how would one describe Sam's actions?
Sam is guilty of prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________
Which ethnic group does the text refer to as the "invisible minority"?
Who are the American volunteers concerned with illegal immigration who unofficially patrol the Mexico-United States border?
Hindu was a choice on the U.S. Census as a race from 1920 to 1940. What is the most logical reason it was removed?
Hindu is a religion, not a race
Which European nation provides the best example of multiculturalism?
In the United States we are free to join the Sons of Italy, NAACP, and other groups in which we can proudly display our ethnic and racial heritage. What is this pattern of intergroup relations called?
What term was used to describe the Serb massacre of Muslims in Bosnia?
Which statement is always true of dominant groups?
A dominant group has greater power and privilege than another
From which nation do the greatest number of Latinos in the United States trace their heritage?
What term refers to a racial, ethnic, or religious minority that a member of the dominant group uses to blame for their failure to achieve desired goals?
What are two major myths about race that are refuted in the text?
Certain races are superior to others, and pure races exist