Comm 1000 - Part 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Human Communication
the process of managing messages for the purpose of creating shared meaning

Also Influenced By Listening, Time, Feedback
Channels
The medium through which a message is sent
Interference
(noise); Prevents messages from being received, or prevents intended meaning from being understood
Transaction
Between Two People; Simultaneously sending and receiving messages
Technical Interference
Anything that distorts the message for the receiver, such as loud noises or anything distracting them from the message
Semantic Interference
When the receiver does not attribute the same meaning to the signal that the sender does
Importance of Comm
75% of our day is spent communicating, it keeps you alive, it is a skill, and it is a top priority of employers.
What is Comm
The process of managing messages between two or more people in order to create shared meaning
Intrapersonal Comm
Communication Within a Person
Interpersonal Comm
Communication with Another (Dyadic)
Interveiwing
Focus on Question Answer
Small Group
3 or more members of a group influencing eachother
Elements of effective communication
Understanding, Pleasure, Attitude Inluence, Improved Relationships, Action
Humanistic Approach
Rhetoric (designed to have effective and persuasive speaking), Interpretivists, Critical Scholars
Social Scientific Approach
Qualitative, Quantitative
Qualitative
Employs rigorous observational rules; work in the field, collect data rich in detail and description ex. depth interviews, ethnography, participant observation
Quantitative
Seeks to uncover patterns in comm behaviors via numbers; employ advanced statistical techniques and rigid testing to support/reject hypotheses; can work in field or lab
The Scientific Method
Ask a question or state a problem; Formulate a hypothesis or research question; think through and refine hypothesis; design and conduct the observation, experiment, measurement; analyze and interpret the data

Empirical, Objective, Logical, Public
Content Analysis
Systematic Analysis of the content of communication messages to describe frequency of behavior and compare behavior types/rates across different contexts

Issues: requires a representative sample, Need Clear, specific definitions of behaviors (requires coding), limited to studying whats already occurring
Survey Research
Examines what people do, relies on self-reports; Examines relationships between variables ex. relationship Questionnaires, Attitude Surveys, Media Habits Research

Issues: Need representative samples; Questions must be of high-quality; limitations-- no control over variables, correlation not causation (conclusion), self reports
Experimental Research
Manipulation of Variables (control and experimental group); control of other variables/settings; measures effect/outcome of manipulation

Issues: Goal- drawing casual conclusions; requires random assignment to conditions; limitations--- hard to generalize experiment from lab environment, artificial setting, limited subject population, requires strong procedure to prevent issues
Reliability
The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results
Validity
Refers to How Well a Test Measures what it is purported to measure
Perception
Interpreting the Sensory Experience of the World

1. Select 2. Organize 3. Interpret
Selective Attention
We choose certain aspects of environment to pay attention to while filtering out others
Perceptual filters
Physical/ Physiological Limits ex. age, sexuality, gender
Psychological Sets
A filter: expectations that shape experiences ex. fear of bees
Attribution
The process of assigning meaning to others' behavior; the act of asking--- why?

We attempt to simplify complex information; Biases and Limitations often lead to errors
Bias
Self attribution tends to differ from other attribution: we act certain way because of "the situation"; Others act a certain way because of "who they are"

Attributions differ as people focus on different information; Sometimes we focus on the individual; sometimes we focus on the context or circumstances
Dispositional Bias
Overuse of personality reasons (dispositions) with others
ex. Joe failed exam because he's lazy and foolish
Self-Serving Bias
Overuse of Situational Attributions with self
ex. i failed because questions too hard and unfair
Looking Glass Self
How Others View Us Will Tend to Shape How we View Our self-concept (your relatively stable impressions of yourself)
Self-Expansion Model
individuals ultimately form relationships to facilitate growth and progress;
more we engage in relationships with others, the more we realize about ourselves (?)
Self-Esteem
feelings of self worth; feedback shapes how we view ourselves; entirely subjective
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A favorable self-concept may lead to success, an unfavorable self-concept to failure

whether you think you can or can't, you are right-- psychological sets make experiences
Primacy Effect
Primacy Effect The first information we receive about a person is the most decisive in forming our impression
Expressiveness
a dimension of nonverbal communication that influences our first impressions; has been linked to the dynamism, expansiveness, and intensity of both nonverbal and and verbal behaviors
Charisma
personal magnetism that enables an individual to attract and influence people and as a divinely conferred power or talent
Stereotyping
a generalization about a class of people, objects, or events that is widely held by a given culture; in groups and out groups
Social Roles
influence how we perceive others and are ourselves perceived by others are work student, sex, and marital roles
Accuracy of Perceptions
-context
-Interpersonal sensitivity--success in decoding nonverbal communication; accurate recall of a persons nonvebral behavior
-perceiver self-confident: no correlation between confidence in our perceptions of others and accuracy of those perceptions
-intelligence-- dispositional intelligence (how are you relating a person's personality to behavior)
-flexible expectations
-Awareness of limitations-- if know what not good at know what needs to get better
Verbal Communication
A system of symbols and codes used to construct and convey messages
Semantic Triangle
Symbol, Referent, Reference
Symbol
something used for ore regarded as representing something else; a word which on its own means nothing, but culturally we have created meaning for the word

Referent: The thing it represents
Denotation
The primary associations a word has for most members of a given linguistic community
Connotation
Other, secondary associations a word has for one or more members of the community; the way in which we interpret the word
Private vs. Shared Meaning
-private meaning: interpretation of a word that is just for us
-shared meaning: same as above but for group (small or large)/2 people
-cultures-- uconn "thanks susan"
Code switching
Changing verbal communication based on audience
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The World is perceived differently by members of different communities and that this perception is transmitted and sustained by language
Strong Determinism
Language has the power to determine our thoughts
Weak Determinism
Our Way of viewing the world and our thoughts are influenced by language but not controlled by it
Abstract Language
Language Issue: vagueness of words
Inferences
A conclusion or judgment derived from evidence or Assumptions

language issue
Dichotomies
polar words-- when word dnt really have value because "what is attractive"; not enough middle ground between opposite words and forces us into categories

Language Issue
Euphemisms
Use them to substitute mild, vague or less emotionally charged terms for more blunt ones ex saying "stout/"heavyset" instead of fat

Language Issue