36 terms

NB APHG Ch. 12 Services

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Basic industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
business services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
central business district
The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement. Typical in colonial New England region.
consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. Typically more efficient for MDCs.
Economic base
A community's collection of basic industries.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
market area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services. Also known as the hinterland. A typical example of a functional region.
nonbasic industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
personal services
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
producer services
Services that primarily help people conduct business.
public services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
rank size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
retail services
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
transportation and information services
Services that diffuse and distribute services.
threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Market Area Analysis
explains how services are distributed and why specific locations are chosen
World Cities
Centers of flow of information and capital.
Tier 1 World Cities
London, New York, Tokyo
Command and Control Centers
Regional and subregional centers of business and public services.
Specialized Producer-Service Centers
More narrow and unique service centers, often related to specific industries. R&D and government could be specific examples of specialties.
Dependent Centers
Typically provide lower skill jobs and depend on other cities or regions for their economic health.
Businesses found in CBDs
High threshold, high range, producer services and services for downtown workers.
accessibility
What attracts businesses to the CBD
competition for space
What causes high land values in the CBD?
skyscrapers/vertical geography
What is the effect of high land values in the CBD?
retail services
Typically found on the lowest levels or ground floors in vertical geography.
height restrictions
Typical limitations in cities prone to earthquakes or cities trying to preserve ambiance in historic city centers.
zoning laws
Typical method of restricting the types of buildings that can be built in specific areas. Example: most U.S. cities prohibit industrial production in CBDs.
French long-lot system
Linear settlements stretched out along a road or river.
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