Nutrition Exam 4 (other lady)
Terms in this set (54)
high in calcium and magnesium; may decrease blood pressure and heart disease. Like sink water
high in sodium; may increase blood pressure and heart disease. Shower
1500mL for first 20kg then 20mL per kg for the remainder kg
minerals that lower BP
calcium, magnesium, potassium
functions of sodium
-maintaining water balance
-principle cation of ECF
-maintains acid-base balance
-nerve transmission and muscle contractions
which ethnic group has the highest bone density?
______ decreases intestinal calcium absorption
_______ accelerates the metabolism of estrogen
how do most drugs for osteoporosis work?
they keep calcium in the bone and protect osteoporosis degeneration
what is the calcium AI for college-age students?
sensible versus insensible water loss
sensible: urine loss
what is ADH? and what does it do?
Antidiuretic hormones- increases fluid retention, acts on the kidneys
what is aldosterone and how does it work?
aldosterone is a hormone that acts on the kidneys, stimulating an increase in sodium retention
How does the body use electrolytes to regulate fluid balance?
the body uses electrolytes to control the movement of water inside and between cells
trace vs major minerals?
major minerals are needed in the largest mount in the body; trace minerals are needed in small amounts. Both are needed equally.
characteristics of minerals that distinguish them from vitamins
minerals can become charged particles and can form compounds; minerals retina their chemical identity.
mineral "binders" that may affect calcium absorption from foods
-oxalates in beet greens, collard greens, rhubarb, spinach, swiss chad and sweet potatoes
-phytates in legumes an grains
daily value for sodium
1,500 mg per day
upper limit for sodium
2,300 mg per day
dietary guidelines 2010 for sodium
older you get the less you can have, at least under 2,300mg
DASH diet food recommendations
vegetables and fruits 4-5
milk, fats/oils 2-3
meat, poultry, fish 2 or less
nuts, seeds, dry beans <1
role of calcium in the body
-important in regulating muscle contractions
-clotting of blood
-transmission of nerve impulses
-secretion of hormones
-activates protein calmodulin (maintain normal BP)
foods with significant sources of calcium
dairy products, tofu, corn tortillas, almonds, sesame seeds, bread, oysters, canned sardines, mustard, turnip greens, kale, parsley, watercress and broccoli
what are most common causes of chronic kidney disease?
diabetes and hypertension
T/F the symptoms of renal failure may not appear until over 75% of kidney function is lost
loss of taste
diminished quality of urine, less than 400mL/day
absence of defective exertion of urine, output <50mL/day
consequences of nephrotic syndrome
edema, risk of cardiovascular disease, elevate LDL, low or normal HDL, elevated triglycerides, risk of blood coagulation
patients with nephrotic syndrome may present with...
anorexia, fatigue, ABDOMINAL PAIN, elevated BP, diarrhea
what causes diarrhea with nephrotic syndrome
edema of the bowl... this may cause decreased nutritional absorption
what is nutrition therapy to treat nephrotic syndrome focus on?
-prevent protein energy malnutrition
recommended daily protein intake for pts with nephrotic syndrome
0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight
Tom has developed acute renal failure as a result of prostate cancer. He complains of having a metallic taste in his mouth, nausea, fatigue and headaches. What might he be suffering from?
What ranges of protein intake are recommended for a patient with limited kidney function who is not treated with dialysis?
• AKI- 0.8-1.2 grams per kg body weight/day for patients not treated with dialysis. Higher intakes once kidney function improves or treatment includes dialysis 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day
• CKD (stage 1,2,3,4) (PRE DIALYSIS) For adults with a GFR<25 mL/min; Protein 0.6 to 0.75 grams/kg/day 50% of the protein should be of high biologic value (HBV)
what are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease?
diabetes and HTN
what BUN level indicates the development of uremic syndrome?
when does uremia develop?
when GFR is less than 15 and BUN greater than 60
why is intake of supplemental vitamin C restricted in pts with chronic renal failure?
because vitamin C degrades oxalates and may promote stone formation
what foods/practices contribute to high uric acid levels?
high fructose corn syrup, NSAIDS, allopurinol, potassium citrate
foods high in purines?
organ meats, game meat, gravies, anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, scallops
what does the kidney secrete to regulate blood pressure?
protein dietary intake for CKD stages 1-3 and 4 (pre-dialysis)
foods high in oxalates
green beans, spinach, tea, nuts
presence of nitrogen wastes in the blood
condition were protein wastes that should normally be excreted are instead circulating in the blood
foods with high biological values protein
animal source protein.... meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt
sources of phosphorus include
corn meal, couscous, dried peas and beans, fish, milk products, nuts seeds, organ meats, peanut butter....
how many grams of protein is in an once of meat, poultry of fish
1 cup of milk contains ___ grams of protein; ____ of sodium; potassium?
Foods high in potassium which may be of concern for renal patients are?
avocado, banana, beet greens, dried fruits, kiwi fruit, mango, melons, nectarine, oranges, papaya, artichoke, potato
What is hypogeusia? What mineral is involved in improving sensation of taste?
hypoguesia is a decreased ability to taste things. Zinc helps improve the sensation of taste
protein needs for someone receiving peritoneal dialysis
what are most kidney stones made up of?