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Tough exterior layer of the hair


Middle layer of the hair


Layer of the hair that is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair


Innermost layer of the hair

4.5 and 5.5

Natural pH of the hair

Raise the pH

What do chemical texturizers do to the pH of the hair?

Peptide bonds or end bonds

chemical bonds that join amino acids together

Polypeptide chains

long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

Salt bonds

relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges (ionic bonds)

Hydrogen bonds

Are easily broken by water (a wet set)

Elasticity test

Before perming the hair, what kind of test should you perform on the hair?

Size of the rod

In permanent waving, what determines the size of the curl?

Straight rods

Type of rod that is equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area

Soft bender rods

Usually about 12 inches with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod

Loop rod

Perm rod also known as circle rod

double flat wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped

bookend wrap

uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope

base placement

refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base

on base placement

the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section

half off base placement

the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees perpendicular to its base section

base direction

refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head

croquignole and spiral

what are the two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod?

spiral perm wrap

the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod

piggyback wrap

the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp midway down the hair shaft

reduction reaction

chemical reaction which involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen


Reducing agent used in permanent waving

Thioglycolic acid

a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions

degree of alkilinity (pH)

What is the second factor in overall strength of a waving solution?

less alkaline solution

Porous hair with a damaged cuticle needs what kind of waving solution?

alkaline waves

also known as cold waves with a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 and uses ATG as the reducing agent

activator, waving solution, and neutralizer

What are the three separate components of all acid waves?


What is the activator in acid waves?

100 times

Because every step in the pH scale represents a tenfold change in pH, how many more times alkaline is a pH of 7.0 than 5.0?

7.8 and 8.2

The pH range of the acid waves found in today's salons

waving solution, activator, and neutralizer

What are the three components of all exothermic waves?

Endothermic waves

These kind of waves are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer

ammonia free waves

Perms that use an ingredient that doesn't evaporate as readily as ammonia: ammonia free doesn't necessarily mean damage free

room temperature

How do ammonia free waves process?


How to low pH waves process? endothermic or exothermic?

within first 5-10 minutes

In permanent waving, when does most of the processing take place?

Thio neutralization

What stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?

Hydrogen peroxide

What is the most common neutralizer?

atleast 5 minutes

to avoid scalp irritation and unwanted lightening of haircolor, always rinse perm solution from the hair for how long?

basic perm wrap, aka straight set wrap

Wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal size bases

curvature perm wrap

partings and bases radiate throughout the panels tgo follow the curvature of the head

Double rod wrap technique

aka piggyback wrap technique in which extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft

Chemical hair relazing

process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form

the twists

the thinnest and weakest sections of the hair strands are located where?

Thio relaxers

relaxers that use the same ATG as used in permanent waving but at a higher pH (above 10)


measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid

japanese thermal straightening, or TR

combines use of thio relaxer with flat ironing

hydroxide ion

the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers

hydroxide relaxers

type of relaxer that are very strong alkilis and have a pH over 13


process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair

metal hydroxide relaxers

ionic compounds formed by a metal

no mixing is used

all metal hydroxide relaxers contain only one component and are used exactly as they are packaged meaning what?

sodium hydroxide (NaOH) relaxers

what kind of relaxers are also referred to as lye relaxers?

base relaxers

these kind of relaxers require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer

mild strength

strength of relaxer formulated for fine, color treated or damaged hair

acid balanced shampoo or normalizing lotion

What should you apply after the application of a relaxer to neutralize any remaining hydroxide ions and lower the pH of the hair and scalp?

no lye relaxer

lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide relaxers

curl reforming

doesn't straighten the hair but makes the existing curl larger and looser and hair is wrapped on large rods

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