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Layer of the hair that is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair
relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges (ionic bonds)
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
half off base placement
the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees perpendicular to its base section
chemical reaction which involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions
also known as cold waves with a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 and uses ATG as the reducing agent
activator, waving solution, and neutralizer
What are the three separate components of all acid waves?
Because every step in the pH scale represents a tenfold change in pH, how many more times alkaline is a pH of 7.0 than 5.0?
These kind of waves are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer
ammonia free waves
Perms that use an ingredient that doesn't evaporate as readily as ammonia: ammonia free doesn't necessarily mean damage free
What stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?
atleast 5 minutes
to avoid scalp irritation and unwanted lightening of haircolor, always rinse perm solution from the hair for how long?
basic perm wrap, aka straight set wrap
Wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal size bases
curvature perm wrap
partings and bases radiate throughout the panels tgo follow the curvature of the head
Double rod wrap technique
aka piggyback wrap technique in which extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft
Chemical hair relazing
process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
relaxers that use the same ATG as used in permanent waving but at a higher pH (above 10)
no mixing is used
all metal hydroxide relaxers contain only one component and are used exactly as they are packaged meaning what?
these kind of relaxers require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
acid balanced shampoo or normalizing lotion
What should you apply after the application of a relaxer to neutralize any remaining hydroxide ions and lower the pH of the hair and scalp?
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