AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 15: Human Phisiology
Terms in this set (134)
Blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues.
Blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart.
Colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.
Fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting.
A network of veinlike vessels that returns the fluid that leaks out of blood vessels to the bloodstream.
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation.
Heart Disease that results in high blood pressure.
Heart disease that results in the hardening of the arteries.
The cavity behind the nose and above the roof of the mouth that filters air and moves mucous and inhaled contaminants outward and away form the lungs.
Throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx.
Narrow opening in which inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx.
Voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords.
Membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi.
The chest cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart.
Two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
The smallest tubes of the bronchi. Coming from the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
Tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.
Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food.
Enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches to formthe simple sugars that is secreted from the pancreas.
A mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with a mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity.
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva.
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
Muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus that prevents backflow.
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach.
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine.
Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area for the absorption of nutrients.
Surface of a cell covered with microvilli.
An enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
An enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine.
One of the main pancreatic proteases; it is activated (from chymotrypsinogen) by trypsin.
A digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
A muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion.
Enzymes that initiate the digestion of proteins by hydrolyzing all the polypeptides into small amino acid groups.
Enzymes that complege the digestion of proteins by hydrolyzing all the amino acids of any remaining fragments.
Outer portion of the kidney or adrenal gland.
Inner portion of the kidney or adrenal gland.
The functional units of the kidney.
The early portion of the nephron where the filtration process begins.
Reabsorbs 75 % of NaCl and water of filtrate. Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed unless their concentration is higher than the absorptive capacity. Glucose in urine is an indicator of diabetes, for this reason.
Loop of Henle
Descending portion is freely permeable. To water but not salt. Ascending portion is freely permeable to salt but not water. Functions to assist in control of salt concentration.
Regulates concentration of K+ and NaCl. Helps control pH by reabsorbing HCO3 - and secreting H+.
Determines how much water is actually lost in urine.
AntiDiuretic Hormone. A hormone that is produced in the brain and stored in the posterior pituiry gland.
Hormone released from the adrenal gland. Acts on distal tubules to cause the reabsorption of more Na+ and water to increase blood volume and pressure.
Process by which heat moves from a place of higher temperature to a place of lower temperature.
Heat transfer caused by airflow.
Process by which water leaves our bodies in the form of water vapor or sweat.
Loss of heat through ejection of electromagnetic waves.
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and the spinal cord and controls skeletal muscles and voluntary movement.
Peripheral Nervous System
Can be broken down into a sensory and motor division that create a closed loop system carrying information to and from the central nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls the voluntary contraction of muscles.
Carries information away from the central nervous system.
Carries information to the central nervous system.
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the involuntary activities of the body such as in smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and various glands.
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that gets the body ready to move.
Branch of autonomic nervous system that shuts down the body to conserve energy.
Main body of the neuron.
Short, branched processes of a neuron that help bring the nerve impulses toward the cell body.
The longer extension that leaves from the neuron and carries the impulse away from the cell body toward target cell.
Neurons with a layer of insulation around the axon, allowing for faster transmission.
Neurons that recieve. And communicate information from the sensory environment.
Function to make synaptic connections with other neurons, they tie together sensory input and notor output and are the intermediaries of the operation.
Take the commands of the central nervous system and put them into action as motor outputs.
Basic unit of response in the central nervous system.
The electric potential becomes less negative inside the cell, allowing an action potential to occur.
Quick changes in cell potential due to well-controlled opening and closing of ion channels.
The lowering of the potential back down to its original level, stopping the transmission of neural signals at that point.
The end of the axon. This is where calcium gates are opened in response to the changing potential, which causes vesicles to release substances called neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap between the axon and the target cell.
Chemicals released by neurons that function as messengers, causing a nearby cell to react and continue the nervous impulse.
Portion of brain in charge of coordination and balance.
The control center for involuntary activities such as breathing.
The thermostat and "hunger meter" of the body, regulating temperature, hunger, and thirst.
The portion of the human brain that controls impulsive emotions and anger.
Portion of the brain that controls functions such as speech, hearing, sight, and motor control. Divided into two hemispheres and four lobes per hemisphere.
Bridge that connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving.
The lobe posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, touch, reading, speech, taste, and somatosensory.
The lobe posterior to and slightly underneath the parietal lobe, responsible for vision.
The lobe that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell.
Striated muscle that controls voluntary activities and contains multiple nuclei.
Involuntary, non-striated muscle that contracts slowly and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Cells have a single nuclei.
Involuntary muscle of the heart that is striated in appearance and contains multiple nuclei.
The space between the motor neuron and the muscle cell.
A protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells.
A protein that makes up the thick filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells.
Regulatory protein known to block the actin-myosin binding site and prevent muscular contraction in the absence of calcium.
The adenohypophysis, produces six hormones: TSH, STH, ACTH, LH, FSH, and Prolactin.
The neurohypophysis, produces two hormones: ADH, and Oxytocin.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone released by the anterior pituitary. As a gonadotropin, it stimulates activities of the testes and ovaries. In females, it induces the development of the ovarian follicle, which leads to the production and secretion of estrogen. In males, it stimulates the production of sperm.
Luteinizing Hormone released by the anterior pituitary. As a gonadotropin, it stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum. Stimulates the synthesis of estrogen and progesterone in females and the synthesis of testosterone in males.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone released by the anterior pituitary. Works to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, which in turn regulate the rate of metabolism in the body.
STH or HGH
SomatoTropic Hormone (or Human Growth Hormone). Stimulates protein synthesis and general growth in the body.
AdrenoCorticoTrophic Hormone released by the anterior pituitary. Stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormones, which work to maintain electrolytic homeostasis in the body.
Hormone released by the anterior pituitary. Controls lactogenesis, the production of milk by the breasts. Decreases the synthesis and release of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), inhibiting ovulation.
Hormone released by the posterior pituitary. Stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection for breastfeeding.
Hormone released by the adrenal gland. Stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection for breastfeeding.
Hormone released by the adrenal gland. Raises blood glucose level, increases metabolic activity—"fight or flight" hormone. Also known as adrenaline.
Pancreatic hormone secreted in response to high blood glucose levels to promote glycogen formation. Lowers blood sugar.
Pancreatic hormone that stimulates the conversion of glycogen into glucose. Raises blood sugar.
ParaThyroid Hormone. Increases serum concentration of Ca2+, assisting in process of bone maintenance.
Sex hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
Sex hormone that stimulates the development of sex characteristics in women. Secreted in ovaries. Induces the release of LH, including the LH surge of the menstrual cycle. With progesterone, helps maintain the endometrium during pregnancy.
Sex hormone that stimulates sex characteristics in men. Secreted in testes.
Thyroid hormone that lowers blood calcium. Works antagonistically to PTH.
Thyroid hormone that stimulates metabolic activities.
The thymus hormone involved in the development of the T cells of the immune system.
The pineal gland hormone that is known to be involved in our biological rhythms (circadian). It is released at night.
Occurs when a hormone acts to directly or indirectly cause increased secretion of the hormone of interest.
Occurs when a hormone acts to directly or indirectly inhibit further secretion of the hormone of interest.
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment. Two examples are the relationships between the two pairs of hormones Insulin/glucagon and Calcitonin/PTH.
Type of hormone that is too large to move inside a cell, and binds to receptors on the surface of the cell instead which leads to the activation of molecules inside the cell.
Molecule that serves as an intermediary, activating other proteins and enzymes in a chemical reaction.
Proteins vital to signal cascade pathways. These proteins directly activate molecules such as adenyl cyclase to assist in a reaction.
Type of hormone that is lipid-soluble and passes through the cell membrane and combines with cytoplasmic proteins.These complexes pass through to the nucleus to interact with chromosomal proteins and directly affect transcription in the nucleus of cells.
Inoculation of medicine into a patient in an effort to prime the immune system to be prepared to fight a specific sickness if confronted in the future.
The nonspecific prevention of the entrance of invaders into the body.
Complicated multilayered defense mechanism that protects a host against foreign invasion.
An enzyme, present in saliva and tears, that can kill germs before they have a chance to take hold.
A protein that coats cells that need to be cleared, stimulating phagocytes to ingest them.
Chemical signal responsible for initiation of the inflammation response of the immune system.
White blood cell. There are two main types of lymphocyte: B cells and T cells. These cells are formed in the bone marrow of the body and arise from stem cells.
Cells that give rise to the immune cells of the human body.
Helper T Cells
Immune cells that assist in the activation of B cells by recognizing foreign antigens on the surface of phagocytic cells and binding to these cells. After binding, they multiply to produce a bunch of T cells that pump out chemical signals, which bring in the B cells to respond.
A molecule that is foreign to our bodies and causes the immune system to respond.
Primary Immune Response
When a B cell meets and attaches to the appropriate antigen, it becomes activated and undergoes mitosis and differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells.
The factories that produce antibodies that function in the elimination of any cell containing on its surface the antigen that it has been summoned to kill.
Stored instructions on how to handle a particular invader. When an invader returns to the body, the cells recognize it, produce antibodies in a rapid fashion, and eliminate the invader very quickly.
Immunity involving antibodies and circulating fluids.
Secondary Immune Response
Memory cells are the basis for this efficient response to invaders.
This type of immunity involves direct cellular response to invasion as opposed to antibody-based defense.
Class I Histocompatibility Antigens
The surface of all the cells of the human body, except for red blood cells, have these antigens, which are slightly different for each individual. The immune system accepts any cell that has the identical match for this antigen as friendly. Anything with a different Major Histocompatibility Complex is foreign.
Class II Histocompatibility Antigens
Antigens found on the surface of the immune cells of the body. These antigens play a role in the interaction between the cells of the immune system.