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Florencs Nightingale

Mother of Nursing, developed the canons of nursing. (noise,variety,diet,light,chattering hopes,cleanliness)Theory titled the Nightingales Theory of Nursing Practice

Mary Seacole

nurse from Jamaica, used her own money to build a lodging house & turned second floor into a hospital. Knowledgeable about tropical medicine, herbs & natural plant medicines to treat cholera, yellow fever, malaria & diarrhea. She helped F. Nightingale.

nurse practice act

defines legal scope of practice, excludes untrained or unlicensed people from practicing, establishes education and licensing criteria, creates a state board of nursing, makes and enforces rules and regulations

mutual recognition

Nurse licensure that allows nurses to hold licenses in their states of residence and practice in other states that also recognize the home state's license; also known as a multistate licensure compact.

sources of law and Nursing Practices

federal law,state law,statutory law,common law,civil law,criminal law

Hildegard Peplau

Nurse whose Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual
Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing (1952) focuses on
developmental needs of patients, but even more on interpersonal
relationships by using a psychological model; worked on an
interpersonal theory

Madeline Leininger

(1977) Theory of cultural care diversity & university. Transculural nursing & caring nursin; concepts are aimed toward caring & the compnents of a culture care theory; diversity, iniversality, worldview, and ethnohistory are essntial to the four concepts (care, caring, health, and nursing)

Sister Callista Roy

Change Agent, Nursing interventions are needed when individuals demonstrate ineffective adaptive responses; adaptive modes.

Dorothy Orem

Encouraged clients to work with their abilities rather than their disabilities. Focus on client's self-care needs - nurse to determine what basic needs (physiological, biological, developmental, or social) the client cannot meet on their own, what needs to be done in order to enable client to meet these needs, and how much self-care the client is able to perform - goal of nursing is to increase client's ability to independently meet these needs

Jean Watson

Caring Theory. Wrote about humanistic transpersonal caring in Nursing: Human Science and Human Care; A Theory of Nursing (1985) and describes nursing as the science of caring


Nursing Licensure Compact

Sunset legislation

Governs the "Nursing Practice Act"Laws found in many states to ensure legislation are current and reflects the needs of the public
Through sunset activities, nurse practice acts are updated and revised

NCLEX was developed

In 1982

Law and Ethics

Two systems of principle.
Law - has repercussions
Ethics - guidelines with no repercussions


Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Law. Anti Dumping Law

Affirmative Duty

Duty to prevent harm to a patient


failure to act in a reasonable and prudent manner


Professional Negligence, failure to act in a reasonable and prudent manner

Defamation of character

Libel- written defamation
Slander- Verbal defamation

Intentional Tort

A patient does not have to prove that a nurse was neglegant. EX; invasion of privacy,intentional infliction of emotional distress


A group of related conceptes that explain existing phenomena and predict future events

Nursing theory

Guides research and practice


Believed that stress would cause illness. social-learning theory

Healthcare in th 21st century

primary focus of federal and state legislative agendas. Major concerns, uinsured population,patient sfety,nursing shortage, rising healthcare cost, technology, confidentiality issues, advanced practice nursing


science or study of moral values


ideas of life customs and ways and behavior viewed as desirable

Nursing Ethics

first introduced in th late 19th century. Ethics have evolved as nursing has evolved. System that governs the actions of the nurse in relation to patients, families,other health care providers,policy makers and society


the study of ethical problems resulting from scientific advances


+Principle of respect for the person: primary moral principle
+Unconditional intrisic value for all persons
+People are free to form their own judgement
as long as they dont infringe on the autonomous actions of others
+Conceptes of freedom and informed consent are grounded in this principle

Kohlbergs Theory

Widely accepted, a cognitive developemental process that is sequintial in nature

Ethical theory

system of principles by which a person determins what should and should not be done

Ethical decision making model

"Always know what teh issue is"
1)Identify the problem or issue
2) Identify the individuals involved
3) Identify the ethical principle or principles that apply
4) Identify who should make the decision
5) Identify the role of the practitioner
6) Consider the alternative (long and short term)
7) Make the decision (even decision not to act)
8) Follow the decision to observe its consequences

Ethical challenges

The challenge of paternalism
+provider tries to act on behalf of the patient and believes that his or her qactions are justified because of a commitment to act in the best interest of the patient
+Interferes with a patient's right to self determination

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