Causes of the Civil War

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sectionalism
loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country
slave codes
laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans, denied them basic rights, and kept them from running away
Dred Scott Case
A Supreme Court case in which a slave, Dred Scott, sued for his freedom and lost; the case brought into question the federal power over slavery in the territories
guerrilla warfare
the use of hit and run tactics
Border Ruffians
proslavery bands of people from Missouri that rode across the border to battle antislavery forces in Kansas
Kansas Nebraska Act
Nebraska Territory was divided into two territories, and the settlers living in each area would be able to decide the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty
popular sovereignty
the right of people to create their government; voters in a new territory would decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery
Missouri Compromise
An imaginary line was drawn at the southern border of Missouri, slavery was permitted in the Louisiana Purchase area south of this line and was not permitted north of this line; Missouri was the exception- the goal was to keep the number of free and slave states even
Compromise of 1850
Five parts: California was added as a free state, a border dispute between New Mexico and Texas was settled, Fugitive Slave Act passed, ended slave trade in Washington D.C., and voters in each new section of the Mexican Cession would decide the issue of slavery on popular sovereignty
fugitive
a runaway slave
civil war
a war between people of the same country
Fugitive Slave Act
required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves
Dred Scott
a slave that sued for his freedom after moving with his owners from Missouri to Wisconsin Territory, which was free
Bleeding Kansas
More than 200 people died in Kansas Territory after proslavery and antislavery bands of people fought over the territory
John Brown
an Abolitionist viewed as both a hero and villain- depending on your views
Manufactured Goods
Products produced mostly in the North- purchased by the South
cottonocracy
wealthy families that made huge amounts of money from cotton
small farmers
made up 75% of the southern white population- called "plain folk"-these people owned the land they farmed
poor whites
a small group of people that were lower on the social ladder- they did not own the land they farmed and barely made a living
Reform
make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices
Abolitionist
a reformer who favors abolishing slavery
Cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Martyr
a person who dies for a cause
secede
to leave or withdraw
Antebellum
The period before a war, especially the American Civil War
state's rights
The belief or idea that state's have the right to overrule federal law as well as join and leave the union
underground railroad
network of escape routes for slaves
Fort Sumter
The location in South Carolina where the Civil war began when federal troops were attacked by Confederate troops
Election of 1860
The election that brought Abraham Lincoln to the presidency and caused southern states to secede