62 terms

ITGS Chapter 7 - Databases

Key terms for the ITGS topic 'Databases'. These relate to chapter 7 of the textbook (www.itgstextbook.com).
STUDY
PLAY
alternative key
Field by which a database is often searched.
auditing
Recording database transactions made by users (e.g. all edits, reads) for security purposes.
Boolean operators
AND, OR, and NOT operators used in a query.
character check
Ensuring a field contains only the specified character types.
check digit
Way of checking mathematically if a item of data has been correctly entered.
Comma Separated Values
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file, separated by commas. See also TSV (Tab Separated Values).
composite key
Primary key which consists of more than one field.
computer matching
Combining several databases to build up more information about a person or set of people.
consistency check
Validation check in which two fields' values are mutually dependent.
CSV
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file, separated by commas. See also TSV (Tab Separated Values).
data entry form
Screen used to input data into a database.
data integrity
Ensuring data is correct, consistent, and update to date.
data matching
Combining several databases to build up more information about a person or set of people.
data mining
Searching collections of data for hidden patterns.
Data Protection Act
UK law that governs the collection and use of personal data.
data redundancy
Data in a database which is needlessly duplicated.
data types
Format of data in a field, such as text, number, or date.
data warehouses
Vast databases containing many gigabytes of data.
Database Management System
Software used to create, enter, edit, and retrieve data in a database.
DBMS
Software used to create, enter, edit, and retrieve data in a database.
field
Single item of data about a single record in a database.
field size
Validation technique. Number of characters that can be stored in a field.
flat file database
Database which consists of just one table.
foreign key
Database field whose sole purpose is to form part of a relationship with another table.
forms
Screen used to input data into a database.
index
Field by which a database is often searched.
input mask
Validation technique. Ensures only the specified characters can be entered into a field.
key field
Field which contains a different value for every record in that table.
knowledge discovery
Searching collections of data for hidden patterns.
length check
Validation technique. Number of characters that can be stored in a field.
normalization
Process of converting a database from a flat file database to a relational database.
online encyclopaedias
Web site containing a large number of articles for research purposes.
opt-in
System in which users must explicitly decide to participate.
opt-out
System in which users must explicitly decide not to participate.
parameter query
Database query whose criteria are decided by the user at run-time.
personal data
Data which could identify a user, or lead to social impacts such as identity theft.
personally identifiable data
Data which could identify a user, or lead to social impacts such as identity theft.
presence check
Validation technique. Requires a field to be completed.
primary key
Field which contains a different value for every record in that table.
privacy policy
Policy governing what data a company or web site will collect about you and how it will be used.
queries
Method of extracting data from a database that matches specific criteria
range check
Validation technique. Ensures a field is between a certain range of values.
RDBMS
Relational DBMS. See Database Management System.
record
Collection of fields that represent a single entity, such as a person.
redundancy
Data in a database which is needlessly duplicated.
redundant data
Data in a database which is needlessly duplicated.
relational database
Database containing multiple related tables and no redundant data.
searching
Method of extracting data from a database that matches specific criteria
secondary key
Field by which a database is often searched.
secondary use
Using data for a purpose other than the one for which it was collected.
sensitive data
Data such as medical records which, if shared, could cause serious negative impacts on the data subject.
sorting
Ordering records based on a field (e.g. alphabetically).
SQL
Language for managing databases by typing commands.
Structured Query Language
Language for managing databases by typing commands.
Tab Separated Values
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file, with fields separated by a tab character. See also CSV.
tab-delimited text files
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file, with fields separated by a tab character. See also CSV.
table
In databases, a collection of records representing a type of item.
Trans-border data flow
Transfer of data between countries.
TSV
File format for transferring data, which stores fields and records in a plain text file, with fields separated by a tab character. See also CSV.
validation
Checks to ensure whether data is in the correct format.
verification
Checking whether data is correct - i.e. is the value entered in a field the actual value?
lookup
Using a list of values to limit what can be entered into a field. For example, for the 'Gender' field, the values are limited to 'male' and 'female'.