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Ch 13 Urban Geography
Terms in this set (63)
Created the concentric zone model of cities 1923.
CBD (central business district)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
small relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a country
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
an urban center founded during the age of empires whose structure is deeply influenced by Europe/Western culture.
The narrow section of land in the developing country city model created by Ernest Griffin and Larry Ford that is mainly used for commercial purposes. This "commercial spine" is near the CBD and is near the wealthy neighborhoods.
the outermost ring of the concentric zone model. It represents the upper-class residential area. It's called the commuter zone because of the people who go to the city to work.
Concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Strengths of concentric ring model
Explains the historical expansion from CBD out to outer ring suburbs
concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area
a fast-growing city with more than 100,000 people, and is found in metropolitan areas but is not a core city.
Zones with very little development. Sometimes the owner donates the land to the city to avoid paying taxes and then it becomes developed.
Within city limits but a mile or two away from city center.
a landscape for cultural activities that can hold a lot of people like Central Park in NYC
Galactic city model/Peripheral model
A mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
Strengths of Galactic city model/peripheral model
Shows the development of sprawl in the US with businesses and residential moving outward away from the downtown into suburbs and leaving a sometimes declining inner city behind. Takes into account the car as main transport mode in many places.
a municipality with: Population greater than 35,000 and less than 250,000. Median household income below the state average. Rate of educational attainment of a bachelor's degree or above that is below the state average.
the social differences between men and women
The process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle class people in deteriorating areas.
areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development and sale of high-technology products.
Economist who studied housing data for 142 American cities and made sector model Sector Model - sectors, not rings, certain areas more attractive - as city grows expands outward - best housing corridor from CBD out, Industry & retail develop in sectors along transportation routes
Hoyt's sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district.
Strengths of Hoyt's sector model
Patterns of this model are still seen today and more realistic than concentric; can show ethnic variations.
A center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
Urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.
a great city; a big city where sometimes, the borders go into other cities
Metropolitan area (metropolitan statistical area)
the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
core based statistical areas
In the united states, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas. The 366 MSAs and 576 uSAs together are known as the CBSAs.
combined statistical areas
composed of adjacent Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) that have economic ties measured by commuting patterns, but weaker ties than within a MSA. Example: Minneapolis CSA includes St. Cloud.
Multiple nuclei model
an economical model created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman. It says that even though a city may have begun with a central business district, or CBD, other smaller CBDs develop on the outskirts of the city.
Chauncey Harris and EL Ullman
invented Multiple Nuclei model in 1945
An area where a number of office buildings are built together on landscaped grounds.
Chauncey Harris- an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. In other words, a city goes from inward city, to residential areas connected by a road.
Postmodern urban landscape or postmodern architecture
Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments
the practice of denying services, either directly or through selectively raising prices, to residents of certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeups of those areas.
Remediation of brownfields
the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of land that has a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
In 20th century separated vertically (shop on ground level, then fam, then poor peeps on top; now territorial segregation-houses designed with similar dimensions; zoning ordinances in North America prevent low-income fam from living in suburbs (high cost, no apartments, property decline); mid-class moves to periphery and inner-city have problems and low income.
A large building or series of connected buildings containing a variety of retail stores and typically also restaurants.
Different socio-economic classes of people. According to the urban models, people live in different areas based on this.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
squatter settlement in Brazil
An outlying district of a city, especially a residential one.
Development of new suburban housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
The changes in density between the suburb and the inner, urban city. People in suburban areas are often less dense and more evenly dispersed.
smart growth policies
legislation and regulation to limit suburban sprawl and to preserve farm land.
Growth of areas on the outskirts of a city. It is a factor that causes urban sprawl. Movement from city (urban) areas to residential areas.
Process of suburbanization
Transportation improvements in infrastructure, like cars and public transportation (buses, subways, etc.), make it easier to travel into the inner city. This allows for houses to be farther out, and the businesses follow the housing movement, sprawling the city outward. It causes an outer ring of housing followed by urban city towards the center.
used to bring goods/people to different places. There are more transportation systems located near big cities.
Mostly used in large cities in the US to commute to and from the CBD during rush hour. Includes buses, subways, light rail often owned by the city/government. Use is in decline as private vehicles have increased. In Europe, often used more than US.
High capacity public travel known as the metro, subway, etc. Uses electric units on rail tracks (trains) and exclusive right away (exclusive easement granted for transportation purposes.) The only kind of public transit that is not in decline in US.
Borchert's epochs of urban transportation development
epochs on the study of cities in the US and related urban evolution to events in history. it has four stages in it.
the lowest classification of people that lives in a city, based on economical state
a dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs with the core.
Urban heat island
a dome of raised tempteratures over a city created by urban conditions and activities
study of the physical form and structure of an urban place
Zone in transition
area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
This prevents shops being in suburban residential areas so promotes suburban shopping malls; makes suburbs more focused on cars and malls since you cannot walk to a store. Also often prevents housing of different types from clustering together, so leads to concentration of low-income housing in one place and upper-price housing somewhere else (segregation by class).
Weakness of the Concentric Ring Model
This model is based on Chicago early 1900s, not modern. It does not exist in pure form, too simplistic. assumes there is one central core and all development proceeds out from there. Doesn't fit at all for Europe.
Weaknesses of sector model
Doesn't reflect modern cities; assumes there is a strong central city; too simplistic; based on older transport, not cars.
Created Urban realms model
Urban realms model
Each "realm" of the model is separate and used for a different purpose, but are linked together to make one large, functional city.
Southeast Asian city model
High-class residential zones stem from the center, middle-class zones are in inner city areas and in suburbs, and low-income zones are in the periphery.
African City model
Ethnicities and types of CBDs change in rings/sectors as you travel further from the center, colonial CBD. Many African cities have this layout.
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