31 terms

Chapter 14

How can you determine whether or not something is homozygous or heterozygous.
Cross with an unknown genotype. the second allele from the unknown will determine the offsprings phenotype.
In his breeding experiments, Mendel first crossed true-breeding _____ generation plants to produce the _____ generation, which were then allowed to self-pollinate to generate the _____ offspring.
A plant with the genotype AABbcc is what?
Is homozygous at two loci.
An allele is what?
an alternative version of a gene
GgTt pea plants can produce _____ type(s) of gametes, but a ggtt plant can produce _____ type(s) of gametes.
Two organisms with genotype AaBbCcDdEE mate. These loci are all independent. What fraction of the offspring will have the same genotype as the parents?
Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____.
1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin
In order to determine the genotype of a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, you would cross this individual with a(n) _____ individual.
A cross between an individual with orange eyes and green skin and an individual with black eyes and white skin is an example of a _____ cross.
A phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 in the offspring of a cross indicates that _____.
both parents are heterozygous for both genes
What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous individuals?
All of the gametes from a homozygote carry the same version of the gene while those of a heterozygote will differ.
When constructing a Punnett square, the symbols on the outside of the boxes represent _______, while those inside the boxes represent _______.
Gametes, progeny
True or false? The same phenotype can be produced by more than one genotype.
True or false? In diploid organisms, a dominant phenotype will only be expressed if the individual is homozygous dominant for that trait.
If an organism with the genotype AaBb produces gametes, what proportion of the gametes would be Bb?
Two mice are heterozygous for albinism (Aa) . The dominant allele (A) codes for normal pigmentation, and the recessive allele (a) codes for no pigmentation. What percentage of their offspring would have an albino phenotype?
A tall, purple-flowered pea plant (TtPp) is allowed to self-pollinate. (The recessive alleles code for short plants and white flowers.) The phenotypic ratio of the resulting offspring is 9:3:3:1. What is the genotype of the plant whose phenotype appeared once out of every 16 offspring (the "1" in the 9:3:3:1 ratio)?
What process is responsible for the independent assortment of alleles?
How do cells acquire homologous chromosome pairs that carry the alleles that are independently assorted?
Fusion of gametes
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the process of independent assortment?
Alleles of different genes segregate from one another in a random manner.
True or false? The principle of independent assortment is best illustrated by events that take place during metaphase II, during which sister chromatids segregate independently of each other.
How many genetically unique types of gametes could be produced by an individual with the genotype RrYY?
Which of the following parental genotypes would yield a 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio in the offspring?
AaBb, aabb
Mendel worked _____.
In a monastery
What would be the expected frequency of agouti brown offspring in the litter?
If an individual has a genetic condition that neither parent has, then that condition must be what?
True or False:
Dominant conditions require that every affected individual have at least one affected parent.
What has no effect on phenotype in a heterozygote?
The recessive allele
To be homozygous, this means what??
You have two identical alleles for a gene
What is a monohybrid cross?
A cross between individuals heterozygous for a single character.
When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote individual, how do they interact with each other?
They do not interact at all.