Chapter 7 Practice Test

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D
The skull bones are classified as ________________ bones.
A) long
B) irregular
C) short
D) flat
B
A bone that is cuboidal in shape is a ________________ bone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
D
Where are blood vessels and nerves found?
A) concentric lamellae
B) circumferential lamellae
C) canaliculi
D) central canal
A
These structures house osteocytes.
A) lacunae
B) perforating canals
C) central canals
D) canaliculi
B
Which bone develops by intramembranous ossification?
A) vertebrae
B) cranium
C) pelvis
D) humerus
E) femur
C
Which vitamin normally functions as a hormone?
A) Vitamin A
B) Vitamin C
C) Vitamin D
D) Vitamin E
C
What would happen if the parathyroid glands were removed and no hormone replacement therapy were initiated?
A) Blood calcium could increase to dangerous levels.
B) Blood calcium could increase slightly, but not cause dangerous results.
C) Blood calcium could drop to dangerous levels.
D) No effects would result; the thyroid would take over its job.
E
Which of the following hormones would not affect bone growth?
A) estrogen
B) parathyroid hormone
C) thyroid hormone
D) insulin
E) antidiuretic hormone
F) testosterone
D
This type of fracture is characterized by presence multiple pieces:
A) greenstick
B) nondisplaced
C) displaced
D) comminuted
E) multiple
F) linear
E
Which of the following is not one of the steps of bone fracture healing?
A) hematoma formation
B) formation of granulation tissue
C) callus formation
D) remodeling
E) All of the above are stages in fracture healing.
C
Functions of the skeletal system include all of the following except
A) acid-base balance.
B) blood cell production.
C) produce hormones which regulate blood glucose.
D) hemopoiesis.
E) regulation of certain electrolytes.
D
The skull bones are classified as ________________ bones.
A) long
B) irregular
C) short
D) flat
B
A bone that is cuboidal in shape is a ________________ bone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
C
Which of the following is a mature bone cell that appears to be responsible for the overall supervision of bone maintenance?
A) osteogenic cells
B) osteoblasts
C) osteocytes
D) endosteum cells
E) osteoclasts
D
The basic structural unit of compact bone is termed ________________.
A) lamellae
B) periosteum
C) endosteum
D) osteon
A
Which large multinucleate cells found in bones secrete enzymes to reabsorb matrix?
A) osteoclasts
B) osteocytes
C) osteoblasts
D) osteoprogenitors
E) chondrocytes
C
Immature bone cells that are largely responsible for building boney matrix are called ________________.
A) osteoclasts
B) osteocytes
C) osteoblasts
D) osteoprogenitors
E) chondrocytes
D
Blood cells develop in which region of a bone?
A) epiphysis
B) diaphysis
C) yellow marrow
D) red marrow
E) epiphyseal plate
B
In which of the histological zones of a developing long bone would you find osteoclasts?
A) zone of cell proliferation
B) zone of bone deposition
C) zone of calcified cartilage
D) zone of cell hypertrophy
B
Which bone develops by intramembranous ossification?
A) vertebrae
B) cranium
C) pelvis
D) humerus
E) femur
D
The first step in making a long bone such as the femur is
A) primary marrow space forms.
B) chondrocytes in metaphysis calcify.
C) chondrocytes in metaphysis hypertrophy.
D) hyaline cartilage model is formed.
E) secondary ossification.
B
In which dominant genetic condition do the chondrocytes fail to multiply?
A) pituitary gigantism
B) achondroplasia
C) Paget's disease
D) rickets
E) osteoporosis
D
Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium concentration by all of the following except
A) stimulating the dissolving of bone matrix.
B) increasing the number of osteoclasts.
C) reducing calcium excretion.
D) inhibiting osteoblasts.
E) increasing vitamin D excretion.
A
All of these organs or organ systems participate in vitamin D production or activation except
A) the heart.
B) the parathyroid glands.
C) the skin.
D) the liver.
E) the kidneys.
C
Which vitamin normally functions as a hormone?
A) Vitamin A
B) Vitamin C
C) Vitamin D
D) Vitamin E
C
Which of the following is the adult form of rickets in which the bones become softened and deformed?
A) osteomyelitis
B) osteochondroma
C) osteomalacia
D) osteoporosis
B
Which of the following types of fractures is a bone broken into three or more pieces?
A) spiral
B) comminuted
C) impacted
D) greenstick
B
Which condition results from little exercise and lack of estrogen after menopause?
A) osteomalacia
B) osteoporosis
C) rickets
D) Paget's disease
E) chondrosarcoma
E
Which of the following is not one of the steps of bone fracture healing?
A) hematoma formation
B) formation of granulation tissue
C) callus formation
D) remodeling
E) All of the above are stages in fracture healing.
D
Functions of cartilage include which of the following?
A) supporting soft tissues
B) providing a gliding surface at articulations
C) providing a model for the formation of most bones
D) all of the above
A
Which selection correctly pairs the type of cartilage with one of its locations in the body?
A) hyaline cartilage, trachea
B) fibrocartilage, epiphyseal plates
C) elastic cartilage, menisci
D) hyaline cartilage, epiglottis
C
Fibrocartilage is found in which of these structures?
A) auricle of the ear and external auditory canal
B) larynx and articular surfaces of bones
C) intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
D) all of the above
B
Functions of bone include all of the following except
A) storage of mineral and energy reserves
B) transport of materials
C) production of blood cells
D) support and protection
C
Hemopoiesis is the process of
A) bone formation
B) cartilage formation
C) blood cell production
D) entrapment of blood vessels by developing bone
B
____________ ossification produces the flat bones of the skull, some of the facial bones, the mandible, and the central part of the clavicle.
A) endochondral
B) intramembranous
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
D
Through the process of endochondral ossification, a fetal ____________ model transforms into bone.
A) mesenchyme
B) elastic cartilage
C) fibrocartilage
D) hyaline cartilage
C
Which bone cells secrete osteoid (the initial semisolid form of bone matrix)?
A) osteocytes
B) osteoprogenitor cells
C) osteoblasts
D) osteoclasts
A
Which of the following are components of compact bone, but not of an osteon?
A) perforating canals and circumferential lamellae
B) central canal and concentric lamellae
C) osteocytes, lacunae, and canaliculi
D) all of the above are parts of an osteon
D
At each end of a long bone is an expanded, knobby region called the
A) head
B) metaphysis
C) diaphysis
D) epiphysis
C
Long bones such as the humerus have solid external walls of ____________ bone, with ____________ bone found primarily within the epiphyses.
A) spongy, compact
B) diploë, circumferential
C) compact, spongy
D) none of the above
A
Which of the following does not accurately describe spongy bone?
A) contains slightly larger osteons than compact bone
B) composed of parallel lamellae with osteocytes in between
C) provides great resistance to stresses applied in many directions
D) forms an open meshwork of narrow plates called trabeculae
B
Yellow bone marrow contains a large proportion of
A) reticulocytes
B) fatty tissue
C) fibroblasts
D) elastic fibers
D
The endosteum
A) covers all internal surfaces of a bone, such as the medullary cavity
B) is active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling
C) is an incomplete cellular membrane
D) all of the above
C
All of the following occur during appositional bone growth except
A) osteoblasts in the periosteum lay down layers of bone matrix
B) the bone widens as the number of circumferential lamellae increases
C) growth occurs primarily in the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates
D) osteoclasts expand the medullary cavity by resorbing bone matrix
A
As with cartilage growth, a long bone's growth in length is called
A) interstitial growth
B) appositional growth
C) osteoid deposition
D) none of the above
B
Interstitial growth of a bone occurs in the
A) articular cartilage
B) epiphyseal plate
C) diaphyseal line
D) center of the shaft
D
A typical bone has which of the following major sets of blood vessels?
A) primary, secondary, and tertiary
B) Haversian, Volkmann's, and connecting
C) epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal
D) nutrient, metaphyseal, and periosteal
C
Which of the following is a thyroid gland hormone that encourages calcium deposition from blood into bone and inhibits osteoclast activity?
A) growth hormone
B) somatomedin
C) calcitonin
D) thyroid hormone
B
Stimulated by sex hormones, bone growth accelerates dramatically at the time of
A) birth
B) puberty
C) primary ossification
D) secondary ossification
A
Dietary factors necessary for normal bone growth include
A) vitamins A, C, and D
B) vitamins B, E, and calcitonin
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
B
____________ produce new bone, while ____________ resorb bone.
A) osteoclasts, osteocytes
B) osteoblasts, osteoclasts
C) osteoclasts, osteoblasts
D) osteocytes, osteoblasts
D
Bone remodeling normally involves which of the following?
A) changes in bone architecture and the skeleton's total mineral deposits
B) activity at both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces of a bone
C) continual deposition and removal of bone tissue
D) all of the above
C
Aging affects bone tissue in which of the following ways?
A) tensile strength decreases and bones become brittle
B) bones demineralize and become thinner and weaker
C) both of the above
D) neither of the above
C
What is broken in a Colles fracture?
A) proximal end of the ulna
B) neck of the femur
C) distal end of the radius
D) surgical neck of the humerus
D
Tiny, seed-shaped bones along the tendons of some muscles are classified as
A) flat bones
B) sesamoid bones
C) short bones
D) both b and c
B
A typical example of a long bone is the
A) patella
B) tibia
C) ethmoid
D) sternum
C
Vertebrae are classified as
A) short bones
B) long bones
C) irregular bones
D) flat bones
A
In flat bones of the skull, a region of ____________ is sandwiched between two layers of compact bone.
A) diploë
B) periosteum
C) yellow bone marrow
D) both b and c
C
Sensory nerves innervate which parts of a bone?
A) the bone matrix and marrow cavity
B) the periosteum and endosteum
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b