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Human Sexuality - Chapter 10 - Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth
Terms in this set (121)
What is conception?
Conception is the union of a sperm cell and an ovum.
What chromosomes to ova carry?
Ova carry X sex chromosomes.
What chromosomes to sperm carry?
Sperm carry either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.
Which sperm are faster swimmers?
Sperm carrying a Y-chromosome tend to be faster swimmers than sperm carrying an X chromosome.
What type of fetus (male or female) is more likely to be lost via spontaneous abortion?
Male fetuses are more likely to be lost in spontaneous abortions, which often occur during the first month of pregnancy.
What is the Zona pellucida?
A gelatinous layer that surrounds the ovum.
What is hayluronidase?
An enzyme that briefly thins the zona pellucida, enabling one sperm to penetrate. Once a sperm has entered the ovum, the zona pellucida thickens, locking sperm out.
What is infertility?
The inability to conceive a child.
Where does fertilization normally occur?
Fertilization normally occurs in the Fallopian tube.
When is the term "infertility" usually applied?
The term "infertility" is usually not applied until a couple has been unable to conceive for a year or more.
What are some psychological and emotional effects associated with infertility?
Some psychologists have found that dealing with infertility can be likened to dealing with the death of a child. Couples often go through a grief process that involves acceptance of the diagnosis of fertility before proceeding to treatment to help them conceive.
What is a possible reason for the current elevated incidence of infertility?
Because the likelihood of infertility increases with age, the current somewhat elevated incidence of infertility is partially the result of a rise in the number of couples who've postponed childbearing until their 30s and 40s.
What is motility?
Self-propulsion. Motility is a measure of the viability of sperm cells.
What are autoimmune responses?
The production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring substances that are (incorrectly) recognized as foreign or harmful.
What are some common fertility problems found in men? (8)
1) Low sperm counts
2) Irregularly shaped sperm (eg,. malformed heads or tails.)
3) Low sperm motility
4) Chronic diseases such as diabetes
5) Infections such as STIs
6) Injuries to the testes
7) Autoimmune responses, in which the man produces antibodies that deactivate his sperm
8) A pituitary imbalance and/or thyroid disease.
Sets with similar terms
ch. 5& 8
ch. 6 and 7. Contraceptives and abortion
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