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Terms in this set (37)
refers to any process that eventually breaks apart rocks
refers to the transport of weathering products after they have been broken apart
Types of Weathering
1. Chemical Weathering
2. Physical (Mechanical) Weathering
All rock weathers when exposed to water or air with rate/degree controlled by:
The principle agent of chemical weathering is......?
Chemical Weathering is a process that occurs because.....
minerals formed deep in the Earth's interior are not stable at the surface of the Earth.
__________ is generally the reverse of Bowen's reaction series
- considers the stability of any phase or group of phases under specified conditions (temperature, pressure, oxygen levels, aqueous solutions, etc).
_________considers the rates at which reactions will proceed.
____________involves the dissolution or transformation of minerals.
The product solutes are carried away as.....?
NaCl=Na+ + Cl-.
K-feldspar + H2O=Clay + SiO2
CaCO3 + H+ = Ca2+ + HCO3
Iron(Fe2+) pyroxene + O2= hematite(Fe3+) + silica
Fe-containing silicates weather by dissolution and oxidation reactions:
Chemical reactions occur primarily at.....?
Increasing surface area (physical weathering) increases the______at which chemical reactions can occur (kinetics)
Natural Zones of
Physical weathering starts at the weakest regions of the rock:
- Bedding planes
- Planes of dissolution of soluble cements.
Thermal Stress: change of temperature
occursduringheating-cooling cycles, particularly in desert climates with >25oC change between night and day
Organisms (micro and macro) can accelerate weathering by both _____________, and rapid ___________
physical destruction, and rapid chemical dissolution.
The material that remains above solid rock after weathering is_______?
Laterites form in warm, humid climates from the rapid chemical weathering of silicates.
Movement of material downslope
Strength of the material is exceeded by the force of gravity
Factors Influencing Mass Wasting
Rock, compacted or cemented sediment, highly vegetated soil, clays (cohesion among clay particles)
uncemented silt, sand, gravel
Angle of Repose:
the slope angle of the sandpile; maximum sustainable slope of unconsolidiated material (without cascading down)
Influence of Water Content
on slope stability
Moisture has positive effect to a point... then it lubricates and enhances failure. Liquefaction
Mass Wasting by Gravity
Movement of material under the influence of GRAVITY (without material being transported by other transporting media, e.g., running water)
Type of mass wasting is function of these variables:
1) Nature of material (Rock, Debris, Mud) -Consolidated (e.g., Rock) -Unconsolidated (e.g., Soil)
2) Speed (creep<slump<flow<slide<avalanche) (shallow slope<steep slope)
Rock or soil mixed with water or air and acts like a fluid
Lubricated at the base (usually by water). Debris moves downslope as a single unit.
A slow slide of unconsolidated material that travel as a unit
The slowest unconsolidated mass movement and deformation (1- 10 mm/yr)
Soil (or unconsolidated sediment) will slowly move from hilltops and accumulate in valley bottoms
What Triggers Mass Wasting
• Increased water content
Other factors leading to mass wasting:
• Gradual increase in angle of slope
• Fire and/or devegetation
• Undercutting stable slope
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The Climate Change
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