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Young child's normal/literal/physical need for adult help in solving complex problems or performing difficult tasks
Children's ability to direct their own activities, to adjust behavior to fit situations & to exercise effortful control
Actions that conform to cultural expectations about what is appropriate for boys & for girls
Gender schema theory
Theory that children form a concept or schema of male & female characteristics, with the content of the schema based on their particular social learning histories
Capacities to control & direct emotional expression, to maintain organized behavior in the presence of strong emotions & to be guided by emotional experiences
Delay of gratification
Ability to forgo an immediate reward in favor of a better reward at a later time
Ability to modify self-restraint to adapt to changing circumstances; when the ego, or self, is showing the capacity to be flexible in its control over the expression of impulses & feelings
Positive feelings & acts directed toward others, with the intention of benefiting them
Parenting style in which the parents are nurturant, responsive & supportive, yet set firm limits for their children
Parenting style in which parents fail to set firm limits or to require appropriately mature behavior of their children
Parenting style in which parents are unresponsive, inflexible & harsh in controlling behavior
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