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25 terms

Chapter 10 Social & Emotional Development in Early Childhood

STUDY
PLAY
Initiative
Erikson's term for a child's sense of independent purposefulness
Self-efficacy
Sense of being able to do things effectively on one's own
Instrumental dependency
Young child's normal/literal/physical need for adult help in solving complex problems or performing difficult tasks
Emotional dependency
Child's atypical need for continual reassurance & attention from adults
Effortful control
Ability to suppress strong behaviors
Self-regulation
Children's ability to direct their own activities, to adjust behavior to fit situations & to exercise effortful control
Self-constancy
Sense that the self endures despite temporary disruptions in relationships
Self-representation
Thoughts about the self
Sex-typed behavior
Actions that conform to cultural expectations about what is appropriate for boys & for girls
Gender-role concept
Knowledge of cultural stereotypes regarding males & females
Gender constancy
Understanding that gender is permanent despite superficial changes
Gender schema theory
Theory that children form a concept or schema of male & female characteristics, with the content of the schema based on their particular social learning histories
Emotional regulation
Capacities to control & direct emotional expression, to maintain organized behavior in the presence of strong emotions & to be guided by emotional experiences
Delay of gratification
Ability to forgo an immediate reward in favor of a better reward at a later time
Ego resiliency
Ability to modify self-restraint to adapt to changing circumstances; when the ego, or self, is showing the capacity to be flexible in its control over the expression of impulses & feelings
Aggression
Negative acts intended to harm others or their possessions
Prosocial behavior
Positive feelings & acts directed toward others, with the intention of benefiting them
Instrumental aggression
Aggression used as a means to get something; ex) fighting over a toy
Hostile aggression
Aggression aimed solely at hurting someone else; ex) verbal insults
Empathy
Ability to experience the emotions of another person
Altruism
Acting unselfishly to aid someone else
Authoritative parenting
Parenting style in which the parents are nurturant, responsive & supportive, yet set firm limits for their children
Permissive parenting
Parenting style in which parents fail to set firm limits or to require appropriately mature behavior of their children
Authoritarian parenting
Parenting style in which parents are unresponsive, inflexible & harsh in controlling behavior
Identification
Process by which children strive to be like their parents in thoughts & feelings as well as in actions